The Wild Card Approach

The Wild Card Approach  [c.205]

The Wild Card Approach  [c.205]

Although the present Good Workmanship approach actually gives conventional NDT methods the credit they deserve (their capabilities are well-used), there should nevertheless be a certainty beyond reasonable doubt that an accepted weld is fit for service. Many years of industrial experience have demonstrated that this certainty statistically exists. We are not doing things totally wrong.  [c.947]

The mechanistic application of transforms constitutes another type of transform-based strategy, which is especially important when coupled with retrosynthetic goals such as the realization of certain strategic skeletal disconnections. The transforms which are suitable for mechanistic application, and which might be described as mechanistic transforms, generally correspond to reactions which proceed in several, steps via reactive intermediates such as carbocations, anions, or free radicals. With strategic guidance, such as the breaking of a certain bond or bond set, or the removal of an obstacle to T-goal application, a specific subunit in the TGT is converted to a reactive intermediate from which the TGT would result synthetically. Then other reactive intermediates are generated mechanistically (by the exact mechanistic reverse of the reaction pathway) until the required structural change is effected, at which point a suitable precursor of the last reactive intermediate, i.e. an initiator for the reaction, is devised. An example of this mechanistic approach to molecular simplification is shown in Chart 10 for the  [c.28]

Table 7.1 presents us with something of a dilemma. We would obviously desire to explore i much of the phase space as possible but this may be compromised by the need for a sma time step. One possible approach is to use a multiple time step method. The underlyir rationale is that certain interactions evolve more rapidly with rime than other interaction The twin-range method (Section 6.7.1) is a crude type of multiple time step approach, i that interactions involving atoms between the lower and upper cutoff distance remai constant and change only when the neighbour list is updated. However, this approac can lead to an accumulation of numerical errors in calculated properties. A more soph sticated approach is to approximate the forces due to these atoms using a Taylor seri< expansion [Streett et al. 1978]  [c.377]

Figure 7a may be used in several ways. For example, if a 20° from vertical (70° from horizontal) corroded carbon steel hopper is experiencing ratholing, indicative of a fuimel flow pattern, and a smooth stainless steel liner to convert the flow pattern to mass flow is suggested, rather than taking a try-it-and-see approach, a wall friction test is mn. If the resulting wall friction angle is 15°, this angle combined with the 20° hopper angle is within the mass flow region of the design chart. The stainless liner should be acceptable. If, on the other hand, the wall friction angle on the proposed liner were 30°, the fuimel flow pattern would remain.  [c.555]

Example 12 Application of Sizing Chart Assume the same cooling range and approach as used in Example 11 except that the wet-hiilh temperature is lower. Design conditions would then he  [c.1165]

Shortly thereafter, Fischer and Tropsch discovered an iron catalyst that would convert synthesis gas to a mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons (alcohols, acids, aldehydes, and ketones) at atmospheric pressure. In the next decade Ruhrehemie developed new cobalt catalysts that could produce a mixture of hydrocarbon liquids and paraffin wax from Fischer Tropsch liquids at moderate pressure. This, plus direct hydrogenation of coal, was the basis of German synfuel capacity during World War TI. Finally, in 1955, the South African Coal, Oil and Gas Co. further improved the technology and commercialized the Sasol Process as the basis for South Africa s fuel and chemicals industi"y. Favorable economics were possible because government mandates and subsidies dictated the use of local coal resources rather than spending scarce hard currency to import foreign crude oil.  [c.1115]

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