Collecting Averages from Simulations

The probability of a collision between an electron and a target depends upon the impact parameter, b, which is the perpendicular distance between the line of travel of the electron and the centre of force exerted by the target on the electron. The impact parameter is equivalent to the distance of closest approach if no potential is present between the electron and the target. For a hard-sphere collision between an infinitesimally small projectile and a target of radius r, the impact parameter must be less than r for a collision to occur, and, from simple geometry, the scattering angle 0=2 arccos (b/r). The scattering angle is large for small impact parameters, while for grazing collisions, where b approaches r, the scattering angle is small. The probability  [c.1308]

Condensation Frequently in air-pollution-control practice, it becomes necessaiy to treat an effluent stream consisting of a condensable pollutant vapor and a noncondensable gas. One control method to remove such pollutants from process-gas streams that is often overlooked is condensation. Condensers can be used to collect condensable emissions discharged to the atmosphere, particularly when the vapor concentration is nigh. This is usually accomplished by lowering the temperature of the gaseous stream, although an increase in pressure will produce the same result. The former approach is usually employed by industiw, since pressure changes (even small ones) on large volumetric gas-flow rates are often economically prohibitive.  [c.2191]

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