Corrosion costs

The only reliable way to cost steam is to create a simulation and costing model of the steam system. Figure A.l shows a typical steam system. Raw water is usually treated by filtration to remove suspended solids and some form of ion exchange to remove dissolved salts. The water is then steam stripped in the deaerator to remove dissolved gases and treated chemically before being fed to the boilers. The chemical treatment usually involves oxygen scavengers (since oxygen causes corrosion in the boilers), phosphates to precipitate any  [c.412]

Maintenance costs depend on whether processing fluids are solids on the one hand or gas and liquid on the other. Solids handling tends to increase maintenance costs. Highly corrosive process fluids increase maintenance costs. Average maintenance costs tend to be around 6 percent of the flxed capital investment.  [c.415]

Produced water has to be separated from oil for two main reasons, firstly because the customer is buying oil not water, and secondly to minimise costs associated with evacuation (e.g., volume pumped, corrosion protection for pipelines). A water content of less than 0.5% is a typical specification for sales crude.  [c.246]

If the performance of the equipment is monitored on a continuous basis, then abnormal behaviour can be identified, and preventive maintenance can be performed as and when required this is called on-condition preventive maintenance. The condition of equipment may be established by inspection, that is taking it off-line, opening it up and looking for signs of wear, corrosion etc. This obviously takes the equipment out of service, and may be costly.  [c.289]

Little is known of the market for acetyl chloride. The production and sales are beUeved to be small, but may have potential for very large scale-up. The total U.S. market may amount to only 500 t annually. Acetyl chloride must be shipped in polyethylene-lined dmms having capacities of only 220 L it must be labeled as a corrosive substance. Acetyl chloride generated captively from purchased raw materials probably has a unit value of no more than 0.92—0.95/kg. Shipping costs and other factors set the price at about 3/kg for the commercial trade.  [c.82]

Because of the highly corrosive nature of the nitric acid streams, adipic acid plants are constmcted of stainless steel, or titanium in the more corrosive areas, and thus have high investment costs.  [c.244]

Wet Scrubbing. Scmbbers can be highly effective for both particulate coUection and gas absorption. Costs can be quite reasonable for the required efficiency, but the addition of water treatment for recycle or for waste disposal may make the total cost as great as any other coUection method, depending on water treatment compHcations. Although scmbbers automaticaUy provide cooling of hot gases, the water-saturated effluent may produce offensive plume condensation in cold weather. Many moist effluents become more corrosive than dry ones. SoHds accumulation may occur at wet—dry interfaces and icing problems may occur around the stack in winter. Eor efficient fine-particle coUection, energy consumption may also exceed that of dry coUectors by an appreciable amount.  [c.407]

Usually the process selected for dehydration involves either Hquid or soHd desiccants (qv). Whereas soHd desiccants, such as alumina, siUca gel, or molecular sieves (qv), offer advantages of lower dew points and less susceptibiUty to corrosion, Hquid systems based on glycols are frequendy selected because of lower constmction costs, lower operating costs, and greater economic effectiveness at larger scales. Glycol units can dehydrate natural gas to moisture contents of 8 mg/m and, with the addition of other units, can achieve dehydration to a level of 4 mg/m. Triethylene glycol is frequendy the Hquid desiccant of choice. Tetraethylene glycol is also used.  [c.171]

Logging operations, in which drilling is temporarily suspended while instmments are lowered into the weUbore to make measurements, are very important in geothermal weU drilling operations. The temperature, flow rate, and pressure of any fluid located can be deterrnined and used as the basis for further drilling decisions. Hydrothermal drilling is often carried out in rough mountainous areas, and the terrain alone presents special problems in weU and field development. Considerable costs can be incurred in preparing flat drilling pads therefore, several weUs may be directionally drilled from a single pad to reach different parts of the hydrothermal resource. Geothermal fluids have a low unit value relative to oil and gas thus a geothermal weU must be operated at a much higher flow rate to be profitable. This means that either the weUs must be of greater diameter or flow rates must be considerably higher. Larger diameter weUs become ever more expensive to drill, and high flow rates can lead to increased rates of abrasion and more rapid deterioration of piping. In addition, hydrothermal fluids that contain significant amounts of dissolved soHds or corrosive gases can rapidly degrade piping. These effects can be  [c.264]

Economics. The cost of energy from the Pleasant Bayou plant, at 12—180/kWh, was not competitive with the 4—60/kWh power produced from higher quaUty fossil fuels which are abundant in the Gulf Coast area (33). The high costs can be related to a number of factors. The multiple energy forms, each effectively requiring its own generating plant, result in higher capital costs. Additionally, the salinity of the fluid leads to problems in corrosion and scaling as well as in disposal. EinaHy, the depth at which the resource exists means that drilling costs are high. These factors are fundamental characteristics of the technology which, except for corrosion and scaling, are not readily amenable to solutions that are economical with the technology available today. Commercial utilization of geopressured resources for electricity production is not expected in the foreseeable future.  [c.269]

Economics. A cost estimate of power from magma has been developed for the California Energy Commission in conjunction with the Long Valley Project, estimating that a 50-MW electricity-producing faciUty could produce power for 5.60/kWh (45). These costs hinge on completion of the Long Valley well, actual fabrication of insulated drill pipe from special corrosion-resistant alloys, design and testing of special drill bits to penetrate magma, the constmction of a small-scale pilot faciUty, and successful drilling of a magma penetrating borehole. Utilization of magma energy will take a concerted effort in resource identification and verification, drilling technology, and materials development.  [c.274]

Refractory failures resulting from erosion and corrosion from hot particulate laden gases can result in incinerator downtime and high maintenance costs. Of particular concern are flourine, sodium, potassium, and sulfate salts, which penetrate brick surfaces when hot. Upon cooldown, salt hardens and expands, causing the surface which has been penetrated to fail. In addition, organically bound alkaH metals in wastes can react chemically with the refractory to form new compounds with lower melt points (eutectics) than furnace operating temperatures. Continued operation at elevated furnace temperatures and close attention to the design and operation of the furnace to keep wastes from impinging on refractory walls, along with controlling the amount of alkaH metals fed, help prolong refractory life.  [c.54]

Plant investment and maintenance costs are relatively high for a new iodine plant in the United States or in Japan because of the deep weUs required for brine production and disposal as weU as the corrosive nature of the plant streams. The principal materials cost is for chlorine and for sulfur dioxide, although in the United States the additives used for the brines, such as scale inhibitors and bactericides, also have a considerable influence on costs.  [c.364]

Other acids, eg, hydrochloric or nitric acid, are more seldom used because of higher costs and corrosion problems.  [c.170]

Fluids baying no or very low water content are usually called oil-base muds or all oil muds fluids having higher water contents are called invert oil—emulsion muds, or simply inverts. Most oil muds maintain a fixed oil—water ratio depending on the desired properties. Oil muds are employed for high angle wells where good lubricity is required, for high temperature wells where water-based systems may be thermally unstable, for drilling water-sensitive shale formations, or where corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide maybe encountered. Environmental restrictions and cost often limit use, although higher drilling rates achievable using oil muds and polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits can often offset the high fluid and disposal costs.  [c.175]

When a natural gas pipeline has been commissioned and is operating, its transmission costs ate the operating expenses plus maintenance expenses. In 1989, these two cost elements for gas pipelines were 13,573/10 m and 2872/10 m, respectively for 1990, the corresponding values were 17,669 /10 m and 3851/10 m, respectively. The primary operating expense for natural gas pipelines is the cost of compression and gas transmission by others, which accounted for ca 40% of the 1989—1992 expenses. The next largest operating expenses were compressor station labor and expenses, and gas for compressor fuel, accounting for 30% of the total (4). Pigging and testing costs depend on pig type, pipeline cleanliness and diameter, extent of corrosion, etc. The Government Accounting Office survey shows a range of 404— 1492/km for the cost of smart pig iaspections a similar survey of three foreign smart pig manufacturers iadicated a range of 746—2486/km for a 1609-km, 610-mm dia pipeline. Hydrostatic test costs ate even higher estimates by the U.S. DOT are 2890/km for a 508-mm dia hazardous Hquids pipeline this cost rises to 5523—8794/km if costs of transporting, testing, and disposiag of the test water and the revenue loss due to the pipeline being out of service are added. The cost of pressure testing and transportation or disposal of test water is about 6563 /km of pipeline, depending on the pipeline diameter, the terrain crossed, and water scarcity ia the area (46).  [c.51]

Products of axial symmetry such as pipes and tanks can be produced by filament-win ding resin-impregnated glass rovings over a rotating mandrel. This process provides for some versatiHty in adjusting the winding angle to meet design cost considerations. A winding angle of 55° to the axis produces pipes that have twice the strength in the hoop direction, suitable for conveying high pressure Hquids that may be corrosive to metals. Large-diameter piping systems (1—3 m) are also produced by centrifugal casting techniques, by which high levels of siHca sand can be used to improve pipe stiffness. ERP pipes have been used extensively as sHp linings for deteriorated concrete sewer pipes that avoid costly excavation.  [c.322]

The indirect hydration, also called the sulfuric acid process, practiced by the three U.S. domestic producers, was the only process used worldwide until ICI started up the first commercial direct hydration process in 1951. Both processes use propylene and water as raw materials. Early problems of high corrosion, high energy costs, and air pollution using the indirect process led to the development of the direct hydration process in Europe. However, a high purity propylene feedstock is required. In the indirect hydration process, C -feedstock streams from refinery off-gases containing only 40—60 wt % propylene are often used in the United States.  [c.107]

Plastic Pumps for Corrosive Liquids. The main limitation is lower pressure and temperature capabiHties, although developments in new materials are likely to improve these limitations. If plain carbon steel or iron pump metallurgy is appHed for corrosive pumpage, the damage to shafts, impellers, casings, and other wetted parts can be quick and extensive, seriously affecting performance, efficiency, and reHabiHty (see Corrosion and CORROSIVE control). Although corrosive damage can be reduced upon the use of special alloys and/or metals, pump costs generally rise appreciably. For some appHcations, even a trace of metallic contamination caimot be tolerated. For these reasons, as weU as for extremely broad chemical resistance, a variety of polymer pump designs have been developed.  [c.297]

The Shoe grouting system is considered nonhazardous and nonpolluting. Sodium silicate is essentially nontoxic. Formamide is toxic and corrosive, but does not present a serious hazard if normal safety precautions are followed. Shoe chemical grout materials are two to five times more expensive than Portland cement, depending on the sodium silicate to formamide concentration ratios. Installed costs are generally more similar to those for cement grouts.  [c.227]

The process based on methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a tertiary amine, offers iacreased hydrogen sulfide selectivity. In addition, MDEA exhibits improved resistance to degradation and lower tendency for corrosion, relative to other amine systems. High solvent concentrations and lower heats of reaction, relative to MEA and DEA, can yield energy savings or capacity iacreases ia existing facilities. Greater problems exist for heat-stable salts, particularly ia tail gas cleanup units, and higher solvent costs have limited MDEA appHcation.  [c.211]

Because of high costs and the limitations noted above, phosphate surfactants find appHcation in specialty situations where such limitations are of no concern. As specialty surfactants, phosphate esters and their salts are remarkably versatile. AppHcations include emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate and acrylates dry-cleaning compositions where solubiHty in hydrocarbon solvents is a particular advantage textile mill processing where stabiHty and emulsifying power for oil and wax under highly alkaline conditions is necessary and industrial cleaning compositions where tolerance for high concentrations of electrolyte and alkalinity is required. In addition, phosphate surfactants are used as corrosion inhibitors, in pesticide formulations, in papermaking, and as wetting and dispersing agents in drilling mud fluids.  [c.244]

The excellent corrosion resistance means that tantalum is often the metal of choice for processes carried out in oxidising environments or when freedom from reactor contamination of the product or side reactions are necessary, as in food and pharmaceutical processing. Frequently, the initial investment is relatively high, but this is offset by low replacement costs owing to the durabiUty of the metal.  [c.331]

The direct chlorination reaction is very exothermic (Ai/ = —180 kJ/mol for eq. 1, Ref. 83) and requites heat removal for temperature control. Eady direct chlorination reactors were operated at moderate temperatures of 50—65°C to take advantage of lower by-product formation, and utilized conventional water cooling for heat removal. As energy costs became more significant, various schemes for recovering the heat of reaction were devised. A widely used method involves operating the reactor at the boiling point of EDC, allowing the pure product to vaporize, and then either recovering heat from the condensing vapor, or replacing one or more EDC fractionation column reboders with the reactor itself (84—86). An alternative method entails operation of the reactor at higher pressure to raise the boiling point of EDC in this case, the reactor operates without boiling, but at higher temperatures (75—200°C) to allow more efficient heat transfer to some other part of the process (87,88). For reactors equipped with Hquid product removal, the EDC is usually treated to remove ferric chloride. The latter, which would lead to rapid fouling of the EDC cracking reactor, can be removed by washing with water or by adsorption on a soHd. With dry feedstocks (<10 ppm water) and good temperature control, carbon steel can be used in direct chlorination reactors operating at low temperature and in auxiHary equipment. Higher temperature operation generally requites materials that are more resistant to erosion—corrosion in the reactor, eg, hard alloy cladding below the Hquid level and nickel alloy feed spargers.  [c.417]

Membranes are very susceptible to fouling by soflds (soil, sand, coUoids, precipitated salts and corrosion products, and microbial growth) and to deterioration in their selectivity caused by various species present in the saline water. Very careflil pretreatment of the feedwater is therefore necessary. It typically consists of clarification, filtration, chlorination for destroying organic matter and microorganisms, removal of excess chlorine to prevent membrane oxidation, and dosing with additives to prevent calcium sulfate scaling and foam formation. Periodical chemical or mechanical cleaning is also necessary. Pretreatment and cleaning are significant and increasing fractions of the RO plant capital and operating costs.  [c.250]

The costs of building and maintaining a bromine plant are high because of the corrosiveness of brine solutions which contain chlorine and bromine and require special materials of constmction. The principal operating expenses are for pumping, steam, environmental costs, energy, and chlorine. The plants are very capital intensive.  [c.286]

Other innovative applications for plastics have recently been introduced into the constmction market. For example, reinforced-thermoplastic urethane joints and reinforced-vinyl ester stmctural rods are being incorporated into lightweight scaffolding. The new components prevent mst and resist chemical attack. The joints are injection molded of rigid thermoplastic urethane. The material is said to have the impact strength needed to withstand the force of joints being dropped to the ground when the scaffolding is being dismantled. A composite reinforcement material, aimed at replacing steel rod reinforcements in concrete, is made from aramid (aromatic polyamide) and carbon fibers (qv) that have been braided together and then impregnated with a resin to form stiff rods. Braiding adds to the overall mechanical strength of the composite and also creates surfaces that form tight bonds with concrete. This material is only one-sixth the weight of kon reinforcement materials, but its strength is said to be five to six times as great. Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) molds are replacing wood-slat molds for brickmaking. These UHMWPE molds have a longer fife, boost productivity, and reduce maintenance costs without sacrificing the character of the bricks. Fiber glass studs and nuts have developed a specialty market in stmctures that must be nonconductive or chemical- and corrosion-resistant. Pultmded glass-reinforced vinyl ester fasteners are used in stmctures that house underwater cameras in the assembly of geodesic panels that form a radome and are used in the constmction of chemical plants.  [c.337]

The processiag costs associated with separation and corrosion are stiU significant ia the low pressure process for the process to be economical, the efficiency of recovery and recycle of the rhodium must be very high. Consequently, researchers have continued to seek new ways to faciUtate the separation and confine the corrosion. Extensive research was done with rhodium phosphine complexes bonded to soHd supports, but the resulting catalysts were not sufficiently stable, as rhodium was leached iato the product solution (27,28). A mote successful solution to the engineering problem resulted from the apphcation of a two-phase Hquid-Hquid process (29). The catalyst is synthesized with polar -SO Na groups on the phenyl rings of the triphenylphosphine.  [c.167]

The overall efficiency of electric power plants consisting of coal-fired boilers and steam turbines has plateaued at about 39%. The addition of pollutant control equipment has increased the internal power use on the stations and lowered the effective efficiency of the plant. The increased efficiencies have been achieved through use of larger units (up to 1500 MW) and higher pressures to 24.1 MPa (3500 psi) and reheat, but concerns about rehabdity and ability to match power generation and demand have kept plant sizes below these values. Maximum temperatures have not been increased because of the difficulties of corrosion owing to coal ash constituents, materials properties, and costs of better alloys. The advent of any future increases in efficiency depends on development of new systems of power generation, which might include fluid-bed boilers, gasification of coal to power a gas turbine having hot exhaust directed to a waste heat boiler in a combined cycle (gas turbine and steam turbine), or use of magnetohydrodynamics (qv) (see Furnaces, FUEL-FIRED).  [c.234]

Use of coil-coated stock reduces fire risk and hence iasurance costs for the metal fabricator. The problem of controlling VOC emissions is also avoided because no coating is done ia the factory. VOC emission control problems for the cod coater are minimal. The oven exhaust is used for the air needed for the gas heaters for the oven. In other words, the organic solvents are used as fuel rather than being allowed to escape iato the atmosphere. Film thickness of the coatings is more uniform than can be appHed by spray, dip, or bmsh coating of the final product. The coatings are all baked coatings, and when cod-coated metal is used, substantially greater exterior durabdity and corrosion protection can be achieved as compared with field-appHed air-dry coatings.  [c.355]

Estimates were made by Uhlig in the USA. Worner in Australia, and Vernon in the UK, in which the cost of protection and prevention were added to the cost of deterioration due to corrosion. These early estimates were made by individual scientists from cost information from new major industries scaled up to a national level, and were of the order of 1-1.5% of GNP. More detailed estimates were subsequently made by the Committee on Corrosion and Protection (the Hoar Committee) in the UK, and Payer etal. for the National Bureau of Standards in the USA. The later estimates were around 3.5-4% of GNP, the higher figure reflected factors not covered in the earlier surveys, which were, moreover, based on organisations which had probably already taken action to minimise their corrosion costs. Estimates have since been made for other European countries which tend to confirm the higher figure.  [c.3]

It is preferrable to carry out the reactions to give an intermediate P-alkoxypropionate. When the reaction is carried out in ethanoHc ethyl P-ethoxypropionate as solvent, and a trace of mercury(II) is included in the catalyst system, the yield of intermediate ethyl P-ethoxypropionate rises to 95—97% the principal by-product is the corresponding P-chloropropionate ester. Acid-catalyzed thermal cracking of the mixture at 120—150°C gives very high yields of ethyl acrylate (26). Although yields are excellent, the reaction medium is extremely corrosive, so high cost materials of constmction are necessary. In addition, the high cost of catalyst and potential toxicity of mercury require that the inorganic materials be recovered quantitatively from any waste stream. Hence, high capital investment, together with continued favorable costs for propylene, have prevented commercialization of this route.  [c.156]

There are some disadvantages to wet precipitators. Water can enhance latent corrosion problems and require the utilisation of expensive alloy constmction instead of the carbon steel often used in a dry precipitator. Some wet precipitators using plastic components have been developed to lower costs in corrosive situations. Additionally, the collection of pollutants in aqueous media may create water treatment and waste handling problems which can equal the cost and complexity of the precipitator installation itself. Spray rate and distribution can be critical in a wet precipitator and must be carefully apphed so as not to restrict operating voltage. Recirculated spray water may become supersaturated with low solubiUty compounds which plate out on surfaces or build up in critical parts of the precipitator. Recirculated suspended soHds can erode or plug spray no22les. Wet precipitators have been most useful in treating mixtures of gaseous and submicrometer particulates such as aluminum pot line and carbon anode baking fumes, fiberglass fume control, coke oven and metallurgical fumes, and phosphate fertili2er emissions.  [c.402]

The project at Long Valley has been designed to proceed in four phases. Work on the first two stages of the project, which entailed drilling to 2313 m to reach rock at temperatures of 104°C, was completed in late 1991 (44). These depths and temperatures are typical of those seen in conventional hydrothermal drilling operations and the problems encountered by the project were not unlike those of other geothermal operations. The third phase of the work should extend the hole to a depth of 4267 m and temperatures of 300°C. Again, this drilling will not push beyond the frontiers of geothermal drilling technology. Phase four, however, is planned to complete the well at 6096 m into rock at 500°C, a temperature which is beyond the capacity of present technology. Drilling fluid additives are not stable at high temperatures, nor are casing cements. In addition, high temperatures cause more severe corrosion and available logging tools are expected to be limited. Insulated drill pipe, however, could allow water to be kept relatively cool as it is pumped to the bottom of a deep, hot magma well, and the development of insulated drill pipe has become a focus in the magma effort. The pipe envisioned would need to be double-waEed. The mechanical strength of such a pipe should not be a problem, but fabrication at reasonable costs and the development of an efficient insulated tool joint to connect the pipe segments present formidable development problems (see High temperature alloys).  [c.274]

Eady nitric acid plants were severely restricted in design by the available materials of constmction. Until high chromium content iron was developed in the 1920s, commonly used constmction materials were acid brick, earthenware, and glass (qv). As better materials of constmction came along, nitric acid process design could be improved. Higher operating pressures resulted in lower plant capital costs. The foUowing is an overview of the materials of constmction used in modem processes. More detailed information concerning the appHcation and corrosion resistance of specific materials can be found  [c.44]

The high heat of phosphoms combustion (3053 kj /mol (730 kcal/mol) of is used in the evaporation of water from dilute phosphate solutions that require concentration before subsequent processing. A Progil process, for example, bums phosphoms in a wetted-waH tower in order to concentrate dilute sodium phosphate filtrate from wet-process acid purification (5). The concentration is effected both by evaporation of water and absorption of P20. Until 1973, the low cost of fuel and the considerable corrosion problems discouraged serious work on the utilization of waste heat for steam (qv) or electric power production (see Power generation). Rapidly escalating fuel costs, however, have changed this situation. Water-cooled stainless steel heat exchangers, located between the combustion chamber and the hydrator, can be operated below the dew point to recover heat and collect highly concentrated acid (6). Operating above a P20 /H20 mole ratio of 1.0, the condensed acid is noncorrosive. The heat exchangers may also be operated above the dew point (7).  [c.327]

The six sequencing heuristics are formulated to reduce the separation load on downstream columns, favoring easier separations early and difficult separations in the absence of nonkey components. If only two products are to be derived from a mixture and all of the components in one product are more volatile than all of the components in the other product, then the next spHt should divide the mixture into the two products. The presence of ha2ardous or corrosive materials can greatly increase costs, and such components should be removed as early as possible. The most plentifijl product in a mixture should be removed (if it can be) with one separation and if the relative volatiUty is favorable. Direct sequences, ie, removing a light product as distillate, generally are favored over indirect sequences, ie, removing a heavy product as bottoms. If no product dominates the feed composition, then separations that yield approximately equimolar spHts are favored. Only if no other heuristic appHes should the easiest separation be performed next.  [c.445]

Most of the ethylbenzene plants built before 1980 are based on use of aluminum chloride catalysts. Aluminum chloride is an effective alkylation catalyst but is corrosive its use as the catalyst requires glass-lined, brick-lined, or HasteUoy reactors, and thus results in high capital costs for the reactor section. The necessity of washing and neutralizing the reactor effluent to remove the spent catalyst adds to the complexity of both the plant itself and its operation. It also creates an aqueous waste that is environmentally objectionable and becoming increasingly difficult to dispose of. The corrosivity also increases plant downtime and maintenance cost. For these reasons, the aluminum chloride-based processes have not been used for new plants in the 1990s. However, many older plants based on aluminum chloride are still in operation and together accounted for about 40% of the worldwide ethylbenzene capacity as of 1995. The newer plants are based on zeoflte catalysts.  [c.478]

Carbon steel, or mild steel, is by far the most common material for tank constmction. It is readily available and, because of the ease with which it is fabricated, machined, formed, and welded, results in low overall costs. Austenitic 300 series stainless steel is another important material used for storage of corrosive chemicals and Hquids. Although the cost of the austenitic group of stainless steels is significantly more than steel itself, the stainless steels offer the same advantages of fabricabihty and availabiHty as carbon steel. The API 650 Standard provides details on how to design stainless steel tanks. Fiber glass-reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks are noted for resistance to chemicals. Many times stainless steel or aluminum tanks are not acceptable. The fabrication and constmction techniques for FRP are somewhat more specialized than for metals fabrication. Because of the lack of fire resistance, FRP tanks are not normally used to store flammable or combustible Hquids. FRP tanks have been used to store water, water-treating chemicals, fire-fighting foam, wastes, lubricants, and nonflammable chemicals and corrosives. Aluminum tanks are suitable for a limited number of materials. Historically, FRP tanks were used for cryogenic applications owing to the fact that aluminum remains ductile at temperatures much lower than carbon steel. However, nickel steels and stainless steels have largely supplanted the market for aluminum tanks. Aluminum is stiH used for some acids, fertilizers, and demineralized water applications. However, in general, the use of aluminum for storage tanks has been low. Concrete tanks have been used in the water and sewage treatment business for a long time. However, because of the relatively high cost, these are not in common use in the 1990s.  [c.316]

Costings. Tin-alloy coatings provide harder, brighter, and more corrosion-resistant coatings than tin alone. Tin—copper electrodeposited coatings (12 wt % tin) have the appearance of 24-carat gold and provide a bron2e finish for furniture hardware, trophies, and ornaments (see Coatings). They also provide a stop-off coating (resist) for nitriding.  [c.61]

Electro deposition primers offer substantial advantages in some appHcations over conventional primers the highly automated lines permit low operating costs the VOC emissions ate lower than from other primer systems and areas not reached by spray appHcation are coated, giving superior corrosion protection. There is also the advantage of essentiaHy 100% utili2ation of the coatiag and no waste from overspray. Furthermore, electro deposition gives uniform film thickness to the coatiag oa aH areas of the article, avoiding thin spots, fatty edges, sagging, and so forth.  [c.353]

See pages that mention the term Corrosion costs : [c.168]    [c.178]    [c.922]    [c.51]    [c.131]    [c.320]    [c.170]    [c.358]   
Corrosion, Volume 2 (2000) -- [ c.3 , c.6 , c.9 ]