Buildings and structures


NFPA 99C Standard on Gas and Vacuum Systems, 1999 ed. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA.NFPA 101 Code for Safety to Life from Fire in Buildings and Structures. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA.  [c.154]

Are the buildings and structures properly grounded  [c.174]

Architectural features and design of buildings and structures.  [c.191]

Design for Prevention of Corrosion in Buildings and Structures  [c.41]

DESIGN IN BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES  [c.42]

DESIGN IN BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES  [c.43]

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The battery limit is a geographic boundary which deflnes the manufacturing area of the process. This includes process equipment and buildings or structures to house it but excludes boilerhouse facilities, pollution control, site infrastructure, etc.  [c.415]

The American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) has rules that insurance underwriters require for the design and construction of pressure vessels which are a permanent part of a ship. Pressure cargo tanks may be permanently attached and come under these rules. Such tanks supported at several points are independent of the ship s structure and are distinguished from integral cargo tanks such as those in a tanker. ABS has pressure vessel rules in two of its publications. Most of them are in Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels.  [c.1027]

The consequences of an earthquake on life and property have caused increasing concern among scientists, engineers and educational institutions. All are becoming more conscious about preventive measures for buildings and critical installations against possible earthquakes to mitigate, if not eliminate, their devastating effects. It is becoming common practice to conduct seismic studies on a region where a large and/or critical project is to be located before commencing work and locating the more important buildings in seismically safer areas. Buildings, other structures and important machines are designed to withstand earthquakes. Analytical methods and laboratory test facilities have also been developed to demonstrate the suitability of structures to withstand seismic events.  [c.436]

The likely responses of buildings, structures and installations to such events are now available. These help us to study earthquakes more closely and their effects and enable us to take more authentic and appropriate preventive measures at the design stage. We offer an introduction to this subject with a view to make the students and the engineers more conversant with and aware of these geological phenomena and to be more concerned about safety for life and property. A few examples may be houses, buildings, hospitals, industrial plants, power generating and distributing systems, dams, bridges and handling of hazardous materials. These and similar systems should be given constructional and design considerations to make them reasonably safe against such effects. In further discussions we consider only the secondary systems that are supported on the primary system and consist mainly of the electrical and mechanical machines, devices and components. The primary systems, which include houses, buildings and main structures, (columns, beams, trusses, floors, walls), dams and bridges etc., fall within the purview of civil and structural engineering and are not discussed here.  [c.436]

In general, this discussion relates more to primary systems, vvhieh inelude civil foundation and structures, on which the whole building rests. Correct civil foundations, structures, columns, beams and trusses are major components in mitigating the effects of an earthquake. All these must be capable of withstanding the shocks and vibrations of an earthquake, according to the response spectra constructed for that location. It may be noted that at higher floor levels, the building tends to act like a vibrating filter and may transmit to the object frequencies close to the natural frequency of the secondary structure. In other words, the multi-frequency band of the ground movements may reduce to a narrow frequency band, almost dominating the natural frequency of the secondary system and may become a potential cause of a likely resonance with the structure. Objects on upper floors may thus be subject to higher accelerations, sometimes many times more than ground accelerations. Hence the necessity to avoid a resonance at the design stage itself. It is possible to do this, by keeping the fundamental frequency of the floor or structure, where the secondary systems are to be mounted, away from the predominant frequency that may filter out from the ground level.  [c.452]

The problem of fatigue and fracture prediction for construction materials practically always run into difFiculties connected with low cost effectiveness of experiments, which cannot create the full spectrum of loads and actions existing in reality during service time of the material or structure. The main experiments of failure and fraeture testing use short-time loads and actions. The results of these tests serve for long-time forecast of the material or structure behavior. Such a methodic of using data of short time testing for long-time prediction usually contain a considerable error of fatigue and fracture forecast. It can be explained by the fact that a lot of basic characteristics of materials such as strength, elasticity, plastic flow, micro relaxation, and crack growth process are not able to manifest themselves fully during short-time testing. Fatigue and fracture are non-stationary stochastic processes as during the material or structure service time there are a lot of various unidentified actions bringing about another source of forecast errors. It is especially significant for brittle and elasto-plastic materials, where thermodynamic balance between elastic and plastic properties in time has considerable differences for short and long-time aetions. The majorities of known approaehes, which are used for fatigue physical tests, have deterministic character or use linear stochastic models for materials characterization. This problem is described by differences in building up models for various materials, which have brittle or elasto-plastic properties. It is necessary to note that sometimes the same materials may have different mechanical properties due to impact of different physical actions, such as high temperature, radiation, cryogenic process, etc. That is why it seems to be attractive to find a way for possibility of control and monitoring of materials and structures during their service time. For these purposes it is proposed to use trying loads of materials or structural elements with registration of processes of the material reaction as the AE process. It gives an opportunity to use a system approach for building up models for analysis of the material properties using a short-time behavior.  [c.187]

There were some clear signs that the situation was changing. In 1975 the Journal of Otemical Documentation changed its name to Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences. In 1973 a seminal NATO Advanced Study Institute Summer School was held in Noordvdjkerhout, The Netherlands, that for the first time brought together a broad range of scientists who came from different areas of chemistry but who were all developing computer methods to manage and make sense of chemical information. The title of the Summer School was " Computer Representation and Manipulation of Chemical Information". The groups attending this conference worked on building chemical structure databases and on developing software for molecular modeling, for organic synthesis design, for analyzing spectral information, and for chemometrics. Suddenly it was realized that a new field had emerged that had implications in many areas of chemistry.  [c.4]

Chem3D has both graphic and text-based structure-building modes. Structures can be generated graphically by sketching out the molecule. The builder creates carbon atoms, which can be edited by typing text to substitute other elements or functional groups. As the structure is built, the valence is filled with hydrogen atoms and typical bond lengths and angles are set. Several hundred predefined functional groups are available and users can define additional ones. The text-based mode allows the user to input a simple text string (similar to SMILES, but not identical). This text mode can be used to build structures entirely or to add functional groups.  [c.324]

An organic chemist can learn most from Nature. Detailed knowledge of biological molecules and processes is an essential prerequisite for this teaming process. An organic chemist nowadays, however, profits most from moving beyond Nature towards artiflcial analogues. This has been valuable for the development of synthetic reagents (e.g., metal complex catalysts instead of metalloproteins) and of industrial and academic target molecules (e. g., nylon instead of protein fibers, crown-type ligands instead of natural ion carriers). At the present time, the details of the architectures of cell membranes, proteins, and nucleic acids are elucidated by electron microscopy, crystal structure analysis, molecular biology, and modem spectroscopic methods. Attempts are then made to understand the construction principles and to apply them in syntheses of molecular systems or of supramolecules which arc held together by weak intermolecular forces. Alternatively, organic chemistry may be combined with biochemical expertise and computer-aided molecular modelling. In general it turns out, that with simple, repetitive reaction sequences and well-planned or luckily discovered self-assembly processes, molecular buildings and chemical machineries of astounding complexity may be synthesized on often surprisingly large scales.  [c.341]

Buildings—architectural and structural, excludes building servicesf Building evaluation when most process units are located inside buildings  [c.869]

Mechanical turbulence is the indnced-eddy structure of the atmosphere due to the roughness of the surface over which the air is passing. Therefore, the existence of trees, shrubs, buildings, and terrain features will cause mechanical turbulence. The height and spacing of the elements causing the roughness will affect the turbulence. In general, the higher the roughness elements, the greater the mechanical turbulence. In addition, mechanical turbulence increases as wind speed increases.  [c.2182]

Demolition and construction wastes. Wastes from razed building and other structures are classified as demolition wastes. Wastes from the construction, remodeling, and repair of commercial and industrial buildings and other similar structures are classified as construction wastes. These wastes may include dirt, stones, concrete, bricks, plaster, lumber, shingles, and plumbing, heating, and electrical parts.  [c.2232]


See pages that mention the term Buildings and structures : [c.1]    [c.869]    [c.439]   
Corrosion, Volume 2 (2000) -- [ c.0 ]