The biochemical population can be adapted specifically to particular pollutants. However, in the majority of cases, a wide range of organics must be dealt with, and mixed cultures are used.  [c.316]

All these differences influence the conditions of production, transport, storage and refining adapted to the crude and its derived products hence the necessity for knowing the composition as precisely as possible.  [c.1]

A Flame Ionization Detector or FID operates on the following principle. At the column outlet, the carrier gas and the eluted components pass through a burner fed by hydrogen and air. When a component arrives, its combustion produces ions that are collected by an electrode positioned near the flame. The resulting direct current is amplified and constitutes the chromatographic signal. The detector is very sensitive and is well-adapted for use with capillary columns its response is approximately proportional to the weight of carbon present in the solute, a quality that greatly simplifies quantitative analysis. Refer to Figure 2.1.  [c.21]

As the boiling points increase, the cuts become more and more complex and the analytical means must be adapted to the degree of complexity. Tables 3.4 and 3.5 describe the most widely used petroleum product separation scheme and the analyses that are most generally applied.  [c.44]

A general model has been developed and published by Kabadi and Danner (1985) to calculate the equilibria in the presence of water. It is related to an adaptation of the Soave model where water is treated in a particular fashion.  [c.170]

Sufficiently accurate thermodynamic models used for calculating these equilibria are not available In simulation programs. It Is generally not recommended to use the models proposed. Only a specific study based on accurate experimental results and using a model adapted to the case will succeed.  [c.171]

Adapted in each case to obtain maximum knocking intensity, it is usually between 1.05 and 1.10.  [c.196]

In order to adapt an engine to a given fuel of a given octane number, the automobile manufacturer must consider the design and control parameters in order to prevent knocking in all possible operating conditions the variables at hand are essentially the compression ratio and ignition advance which in turn determine the motor performance (thermal efficiency and specific horsepower). Horsepower can always be maintained by technological devices such as cylinder displacement and transmission ratios but the thermal efficiency always remains closely tied to the octane number. This is illustrated by the following example a 6-point increase in octane number (RON or MON) —corresponding to an average difference between a premium gasoline and a regular gasoline— enables a one-point gain in compression ratio (from 9 to 10, for example), which results in an efficiency improvement of 6%. An average 1% efficiency gain per point of octane number increase is thereby obtained. This approach has led to the concept of Car Efficiency Parameter (CEP). For an engine with a compression ratio exactly adapted to the fuel used, the CEP represents the weight per cent change in consumption resulting from a one-point change in octane number. In the preceding example, the CEP equals 1. That is the value most often used in economic evaluation of the technology. Now if the manufacturer changes the system acting on not the compression ratio but the ignition advance, the preceding tendency still applies but with a lower CEP, between 0.5 and 1. As a  [c.198]

As their name implies, these products are used essentially for jet aircraft they can also be used in stationary turbines, which are themselves adaptable to a large variety of fuels such as natural gas, LPG, diesel fuel, and heating oil.  [c.225]

LPG, stored as a liquid at its saturation pressure, is vaporized and introduced as vapor in conventional spark ignition motors. These motors are not modified with the exception of their feed system. Moreover, in the majority of cases, dual fuel capabilities have been adapted, that is, the vehicle can use either LPG or liquid fuel.  [c.230]

Table 5.23 gives the results obtained on the American automotive fleet. The pollutant emissions attributable to one or another of the parameters stated above does not generally exceed 10 to 15%. However, certain tendencies merit attention for example, the presence in the fuel of an oxygen compound like MTBE contributes to reducing the CO and hydrocarbon emissions a reduction in the aromatics content goes equally in the same direction. This work has led to the concept of reformulated fuel in the United States, that is presenting physical-chemical characteristics adapted to minimizing the pollutant emissions. We will go more deeply Into the idea of reformulated fuel in the following pages.  [c.260]

For gas compressors Danger of gas/oil reaction Adapted composition  [c.284]

For refrigeration compressors Miscibility with the refrigeration fluids (including compressors with the new refrigeration fluids) Adapted composition  [c.284]

Conversion Processes that generate new molecules having properties adapted to the product s end use.  [c.366]

Some slim hole rigs were adapted from units employed by mining exploration companies and are designed to allow continuous coring rather than breaking the formation into cuttings. These rigs are sometimes employed for data gathering wells in exploration ventures. They are ideally suited for remote locations since they can be transported in segments by helicopter.  [c.52]

The properties of hydrocarbon gases are relatively simple since the parameters of pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) can be related by a single equation. The basis for this equation is an adaptation of a combination of the classical laws of Boyle, Charles and Avogadro.  [c.105]

The end users of CBR systems should in principle be able to maintain the case-bases themselves and use the systems for varying inspection types (within certain limits). Adaptation of neural-network based systems, though possible by end-users, is difficult to be done reliably. Adaptation of rule-based systems usually has to be done by the rule-base designer.  [c.103]

Fundamental of the Theory for Adaptive Image Reconstruction in X-Ray Tomography.  [c.121]

The prior knowledge is assumed to be the discrete structure of the image, the statistical independence of the noise values, their stationarity and zero mean value. For this case, the image reconstruction problem can be represented as an adaptive stochastic estimation process [9] with the structure shown in Fig. 1.  [c.122]

Fig. 1 Structure of adaptive estimation Fig. 1 Structure of adaptive estimation
Adaptive Pseudo-Inversion  [c.122]

The adaptive estimation of the pseudo-inverse parameters a n) consists of the blocks C and E (Fig. 1) if the transformed noise ( ) has unknown properties. Bloek C performes the restoration of the posterior PDD function w a,n) from the data a (n) + (n). It includes methods and algorithms for the PDD function restoration from empirical data [8] which are based on empirical averaging. Beeause the noise is assumed to be a stationary process with zero mean value and the image parameters are constant, the PDD function w(a,n) converges, at least, to the real distribution. The posterior PDD funetion is used to built a back loop to block B and as a direct input for the estimator E. For the given estimation criteria f(a,d) an optimal estimation a (n) can be found from the expression  [c.123]

Therefore, the adaptive properties of the above system include the PDD restoration algorithms from empirieal data.  [c.123]

Finally, it is shown in terms of the presented example that the proposed adaptive reconstruction algorithm is valuable for image reconstruction from projections without any prior information even in the case of noisy data. The number of required projections can be determined by investigating the convergence properties of the reconstruction algorithm.  [c.125]

The measurements were earned out on rectangular slots in aluminium and mild steel inspected using two probes at several frequeneies. The size of the eoils are adapted to the dimensions of the slots which simulate rectangular defects.  [c.142]

NDT inspection in the thin-skin regime is well adapted to finding the length of a surface slot or crack from eddy current data. With the electromagnetic skin depth smaller than the slot depth, the interaction between the eddy current induced in the test block and tbe slot is strong at the surface of the block.  [c.145]

Forward modelling is the first step for inverting data for the reconstruction of the defect. For this purpose, the specialised code is better adapted because it is faster than the general code.  [c.147]

In order to reply to some particular cases of NDT such that the detection two close defects and the fine thickness measure, we have developed techniques adapted to this type of problem.  [c.225]

PARADISE (L.), Development of methods and a device of signal processing adapted to NDT by ultrasonic waves. Thesis of Doctor Engineer, INP Grenoble, 1983.  [c.227]

FLASH determines the equilibrium vapor and liquid compositions resultinq from either an isothermal or adiabatic equilibrium flash vaporization for a mixture of N components (N 20). The subroutine allows for presence of separate vapor and liquid feed streams for adaption to countercurrent staged processes.  [c.319]

Solution The first problem is that a different value of AT ,i is required for difi erent matches. The problem table algorithm is easily adapted to accommodate this. This is achieved by assigning AT ,i contributions to streams. If the process streams are assigned a contribution of 5 C and flue gas a contribution of 25°C, then a process-process match has a of 5 -H 5 = 10 C and a  [c.191]

Fifth Edition of Miall s Dictionary of Chemistry copyright Longman Group Ltd, 1981 This adaptation copyright Penguin Books Ltd, 1983 All rights reserved  [c.4]

Adaptations of this method have been proposed in order to take into account the band displacement due either to substitution on the aromatic ring, or to chains of different lengths. The variations consist, instead of measuring the absorbance at maximum absorption, of an integration of the absorbance curve over a specified range (Oelert s method, 1971). More exact, this method is used less often mainly because the Brandes method is simpler  [c.61]

As of 1 July 1991 all new vehicles registered in Europe should have been adapted for using Eurosuper. However, another quality of unleaded fuel had already appeared in 1988 and has since been well established in some countries, notably France. It is called Superplus, the highest octane level, RON 98, MON 88. Superplus is suitable for vehicles having catalytic converters as well as for a large part of the former automotive fleet requiring an RON of 97 and higher.  [c.210]

These products are used for motor scooters, outboard motors and other engines for domestic use such as power mowers and chain saws equipped with spark-ignition two-stroke engines. Their design will require either a conventional fuel, if the lubrication is separate, or mixtures of fuel and lubricating oil, with 2 to 6% oil depending on the manufacturer s specifications. In the latter case, up to now, the oil is mixed with regular gasoline containing lead. Yet, this will soon disappear. Its replacement by other products like conventional premium, Eurosuper, and Superplus will not present many particular problems concerning combustion however, certain problems of engine failure due to insufficient lubrication have been brought to light. Currently the rules covering this area are not directed toward two-stroke engines, which would be unrealistic considering their limited market, but towards a more rigorous and better adapted lubricant specifications. Under these conditions, the two-stroke engine fuel that will be recommended worldwide will very likely be a conventional unleaded premium fuel like Eurosuper.  [c.231]

Case-Based Reasoning. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) systems base their solutions on previously solved problems (cases) which are stored in a case-base [Watson Marir, 1994]. When a new problem is presented to a CBR system a similar case(s) is/are retrieved from the case-base. Depending on the differences between the retrieved and the presented problem the retrieved solution may have to be more or less adapted to obtain a solution to the new problem. The solved problem may be retained in the case base if deemed useful.  [c.99]

The CT performance strongly depends on the image and the noise properties. In the modern CT theory prior knowledge about these properties are taken into account [3, 4]. But this knowledge is usually uncertain. One possible way to avoid these difficulties consists in employing principles of adaptive processing from automatic control and identification theory [5-6]. The basis of the adaptive image reconstruction is the estimation of the object and noise properties during the current measurement of the projections. The aim of this work is to develop a theory of adaptive image reconstruction for X-Ray tomography in case of undefined conditions for the image and noise probability density distributions (FDD). The instrument for solving this problem is the aplication of probabilistic iterative procedures [5-7] based on the processing of empirical data [8].  [c.121]

Simulations of the adaptive reconstruction have been performed for a single slice of a porosity in ferritic weld as shown in Fig. 2a [11]. The image matrix has the dimensions 230x120 pixels. The number of beams in each projection is M=131. The total number of projections K was chosen to be 50. For the projections the usual CT setup was used restricted to angels between 0° and 180° with the uniform step size of about 3.7°. The diagonal form of the quadratic criteria F(a,a) and f(a,a) were used for the reconstruction algorithms (5) and (6).  [c.124]

Y. Z. Tsypkin, Adaption and Learning in Automatic Systems, Academic Press, NY, 1971  [c.126]

For a given Bscan image, the OSD characterization problem is subsequently similar to a minimization problem of our specific dissimilarity criterion (1). Its solution gives the OSD geometrical parameters at the input of the direct model for which synthetic segmented Bscan image best matches the experimental segmented Bsean image. Mathematically, the closeness of the match is quantified by the presented dissimilarity criterion. This criterion has specific features that prohibit the selection of any classical optimization technique. It is multimodal and not differentiable with respect to the OSD parameters, so that the solution, defined as its minimizer, has to be obtained by using global optimization methods (e.g.. Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithms, Adaptive Random Search) that are appropriate in such cases. The main idea of these optimization methods is to generate at each iteration new parameter characteristics, until an acceptance criterion (e.g.. Metropolis criterion [3] of the Simulated Annealing algorithm) is satisfied.  [c.174]

In this paper, segmentation method based on the analysis by Co-Occurrence Matrix is developed. It is an effective tool that has been introduced by HARALICK (1). Co-Occurrence Matrix has been withheld among the various methods of segmentation for their selective analysis abilities of the image following a direction of observation and by the possibility to regard as the noise of the analysed image as a texture. These two points are perfectly adapted to ultrasonic images (2),(3). We apply also this tool to X-rays images that are currently increasingly studied. We are interested especially in welded joint radiograms so as to make a contribution to a detection and an automatic failure interpretation.  [c.231]

See pages that mention the term Adaptive : [c.73]    [c.111]    [c.22]    [c.230]    [c.366]    [c.202]    [c.282]    [c.283]    [c.123]    [c.123]   
Practical aspects of finite element modelling of polymer processing (2002) -- [ c.103 ]