Vacuum distillation

Commercial equipment is available which automatically switches from atmospheric distillation to vacuum distillation and calculates the distillation curve as temperatures under atmospheric pressure conditions as a function of weight or volume per cent recovery.  [c.18]

SARA (Saturates, Aromatics, Resins, Asphaltenes) analysis is widely practiced on heavy fractions such as vacuum and atmospheric residues and vacuum distillates for two purposes  [c.81]

Feedstock Paraffinic crude Naphthenic crude Vacuum distillate Vacuum residue Deasphalted atmospheric residue  [c.224]

In the 1970 s, heavy fuel came mainly from atmospheric distillation residue. Nowadays a very large proportion of this product is vacuum distilled and the distillate obtained is fed to conversion units such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking and cokers. These produce lighter products —gas and gasoline— but also very heavy components, that are viscous and have high contaminant levels, that are subsequently incorporated in the fuels.  [c.241]

The conventional mineral bases result from the refining of vacuum distillation cuts and deasphalted atmospheric residues. According to the crude oil origin and the type of refining they undergo, the structures of these bases can be essentially paraffinic, isoparaffinic, or naphthenic. The conventional scheme for lubricating oil production involves the following steps selection of distillates having appropriate viscosities, elimination of aromatics by solvent extraction in order to improve their VI (viscosity index), extraction of high freezing point paraffins by dewaxing and finally light hydrogen purification treatment (see Figure 10.13).  [c.277]

The words asphalt and bitumen take on different meanings depending on type of industry or national custom. In the petroleum industry and in the United States, asphalt is the term most widely used for products derived from refining operations, typically atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues, containing cementitious, high molecular weight polar materials called asphaltenes. In Europe, although the terms bitumen and asphalt are often used interchangeably for the same products, bitumen is considered to be more correct. In France, there is a technical distinction between the two terms, and because of this, the word bitumen will replace asphalt in most cases in this chapter.  [c.286]

The distillation of crudes chosen for their yield in heavy fractions is the most common means. Bitumen is extracted from the residue from a vacuum distillation column (a few dozen mm of mercury), the latter being fed by atmospheric distillation residue. Unlike the practice of a decade ago, it is now possible to obtain all categories of bitumen, including the hard grades.  [c.288]

Once the distillation intervais of cuts coming from atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation are specified, the preceding curves give the properties of the selected cuts.  [c.335]

Secondary Distillation or Vacuum Distillation  [c.367]

Properly speaking, steam cracking is not a refining process. A key petrochemical process, it has the purpose of producing ethylene, propylene, butadiene, butenes and aromatics (BTX) mainly from light fractions of crude oil (LPG, naphthas), but also from heavy fractions hydrotreated or not (paraffinic vacuum distillates, residue from hydrocracking HOC).  [c.382]

Feedstocks for this very flexible process are usually vacuum distillates, deasphalted oils, residues (hydrotreated or not), as well as by-products from other processes such as extracts, paraffinic slack waxes, distillates from visbreaking and coking, residues from hydrocracking, converted in mixtures with the main feedstock.  [c.384]

Figure 10.7 presents the case of an FCC feedstock comprising a mixture of vacuum distillate and light atmospheric residue, and the case of an FCC feedstock composed of vacuum distillate and DAO, as well as the constraints of such configurations.  [c.388]

Feed vacuum distillate and light atmospheric residue  [c.388]

Feed vacuum distillate and deasphalted oil  [c.388]

Figure 10.8 presents a variant of the FCC process, the RCC (Residue Catalytic Cracking) capable of processing heavier feedstocks (atmospheric residue or a mixture of atmospheric residue and vacuum distillate) provided that certain restrictions be taken into account (Heinrich et al., 1993).  [c.389]

Feedstocks are light vacuum distillates and/or heavy ends from crude distillation or heavy vacuum distillates from other conversion processes visbreaking, coking, hydroconversion of atmospheric and vacuum residues, as well as deasphalted oils.  [c.391]

Feeds vacuum distillates, deasphalted oil (from C, or process)  [c.393]

Feedstocks Vacuum distillate (VD) Deasphalted oil (DAO)  [c.396]

After vacuum distillation of 380°C+ residues  [c.397]

The feedstocks can be vacuum distillate and deasphalted oils (DAO).  [c.399]

Feedstock Vacuum distillate (VD) Deasphalted oil (DAO)  [c.399]

The conversion products, other than gas and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), are essentially a gasoline fraction that, after pretreatment, will be converted by catalytic reforming an average quality distillate fraction to be sent to the gas oil pool and an atmospheric residue or vacuum distillate and vacuum residue whose properties and impurity levels (S, N, Conr.  [c.400]

Vacuum residue case Gasoline Gas oil Atm. residue Vacuum distillate Vacuum residue  [c.401]

It occurs chiefly as cinnabar, the red sulphide HgS, from which it is readily extracted either by roasting (to give the metal and sulphur dioxide) or by heating with calcium oxide the metal distils off and can be purified by vacuum distillation.  [c.435]

It has already been pointed out that a liquid even when subjected to simple atmospheric distillation may become superheated and then bump violently in consequence this danger is greatly increased during distillation under reduced pressure and therefore a specially designed flask, known as a Claisen flask, is used to decrease the risk of superheating. In Fig. i2(a) a Claisen flask D is shown, fitted up as part of one of the simplest types of vacuum-distillation apparatus.  [c.28]

For all vacuum distillations, a trap (cf. K, Fig. 14, p, 31) should be fitted near the pump, in ease the water sucks back .  [c.28]

Fractional Distillation under Reduced Pressure. One great disadvantage of the simple vacuum-distillation apparatus shown in Fig. 12(a) is that, if more than one fraction distils, the whole process has to be stopped after collecting each consecutive fraction, in order to change the receiver F. This may be overcome by replacing the simple receiving flask F by a pig (Fig. 13) which collects consecutive  [c.30]

When a more delicate fractional vacuum-distillation is required, the flask and column shown in Fig. ii(b), p. 26, may be used, the side-arm of the column being fitted directly into receiver C (Fig. 14). A rubber stopper must then be used to fit the flask on to the fractionating column, and it should also carry a capillary tube leading to the bottom of the flask, to provide the usual fine stream of bubbles to prevent bumping.  [c.32]

The benzene has now to be distilled off at atmospheric pressure and the residual phenylhydrazine at reduced pressure. For this purpose, fit a small dropping-funnel to the main neck of a 60 ml. Claisen flask, cork the other neck, and fit a water-condenser to the side-arm. Run about 30 ml. of the benzene solution into the flask, and heat the latter in an oil-bath, controlling the temperature of the bath so that the benzene distils gently over. Allow the remainder of the solution to run in from the dropping-funnel as fast as the benzene itself distils over. When the benzene has been almost entirely removed, fit a capillary tube and a thermometer into the necks of the flask, and then assemble the complete apparatus for vacuum distillation, using either the simple apparatus shown in Fig. i2(a) (p. 29) or a water-condenser fitted with a pig (Fig. 13, p. 31, or Fig. 23(F), p. 46). Distil the phenylhydrazine carefully from an oil-bath and collect a fraction boiling over a range of about 3°, e.g. at i2 ]-i2o°j22 mm. The phenylhydrazine is thus obtained as a very pale yellow (almost colourless) oil, of d, i-io it has a characteristic odour and is only slightly soluble in water. Yield, 16-17 g. Pure phenylhydrazine has m.p. 23° it boils at 242-243° at atmospheric pressure with partial decomposition.  [c.199]

Safety goggles should always be worn over the eyes when carrying out potentially dangerous operations, e,g. vacuum distillations, distillation of large volumes of inflammable liquids and experiments employing large quantities of metallic sodium.  [c.530]

The dotted line in Fig. 11,17, 2 refers to the modification of the apparatus for use in fractional distillation under reduced pressure a Perkin triangle or equivalent receiver device ( vacuum distilling adapter ) is generally employed for collection of the various fractions.  [c.98]

Attach the flask containing the mixture, with capillary in position, to the column make sure that the Perkin triangle (or vacuum distilling adapter ) and receiver are in place. See that the oil pump is functioning  [c.100]

Details are given in Table 3.3. As with all correlations, one should beware of using them if thp mea su ments taken are outside the region of the correlation that estabTishedthem. This method is commonly called ndM and is used mainly with vacuum distillates and lubricating oils.  [c.43]

Mass spectrometry allows analysis by hydrocarbon family for a variety of petroleum cuts as deep as vacuum distillates since we have seen that the molecules must be vaporized. The study of vacuum residues can be conducted by a method of direct introduction which we will address only briefly because the quantitative aspects are ek r metiy difficult to master. Table 3.6 gives some examples the matrices used differ according to the distillation cut and the chemical content such as the presence or absence of olefins or sulfur.  [c.50]

During the production of mineral oils from vacuum distillates, one of the process steps, dewaxing , removes the high melting point materials in order to improve the oil s pour point. Dewaixing produces paraffins and waxes, the first coming from light distillates, and the second from medium or heavy distillates.  [c.285]

Vacuum distillation of the atmospheric residue complements primary distillation, enabli r.ecoyery of heavy distillate cuts from atmospheric residue that will un r o further conversion or will serve as lube oil bases. The vacuum residue containing most of the crude contaminants (metals, salts, sediments, sulfur, nitrogen, asphaltenes, Conradson carbon, etc.) is used in asphalt manufacture, for heavy fuel-oil, or for feed for others conversion processes.  [c.367]

If a vacuum-distillation apparatus is not available for the above preparation, the crude product may be distilled at atmospheric pressure and the acetoacetate collected as the fraction boiling at i75 -i85 . A pure preparation cannot be obtained in this way, however, because the ester decomposes slightly when distilled at atmospheric pressure.  [c.268]

Meanwhile fit up an apparatus for ether distillation precisely similar to that shown in Fig. 64 (p. 163), except that a 100 ml. Claisen flask is used instead of the simple distillation-flask shown in the figure, f.e., as in Fig. 23(E), p. 45. The droppingTunnel is fitted to the main neck of the Claisen flask, the side-neck being corked. Filter the dry ethereal solution through a fluted filter-paper directly into the dropping-funnel, finally washing the conical flask and the calcium chloride with a few ml. of fresh ether. Then distil off the ether in the usual way, allowing the solution to fall from the droppingTunnel into the flask as fast as the ether itself distils over—observe all the usual precautions for ether distillations. When the distillation of the ether is complete and only the crude ester remains in the Claisen flask, fit up the latter for vacuum-distillation, using the simple apparatus shown in Fig. 12(a), (p. 29) or a Perkin triangle with condenser (Fig. 14, p. 31) or the condenser and pig shown in Fig. 23(F), p. 46, and heating the flask in an oil-bath. The ethyl malonate usually distils as a sharp fraction boiling over a range of about 2-3° it may be recognised from the following b.p.s 93°/i6 mm., io5°/26 mm. Yield, about 35 g. If necessary the ethyl malonate may be distilled at atmospheric pressure, at which it has b.p. 198° slight decomposition occurs in these circumstances, however, and the distillate, although colourless, has a slightly acrid odour.  [c.274]

See pages that mention the term Vacuum distillation : [c.412]    [c.369]    [c.391]    [c.393]    [c.393]    [c.400]    [c.408]    [c.484]    [c.504]    [c.267]    [c.596]   
See chapters in:

Purification of laboratory chemicals  -> Vacuum distillation

Practical organic chemistry (1960) -- [ c.28 , c.29 , c.30 , c.31 ]

Practical organic chemistry (1978) -- [ c.28 , c.29 , c.30 , c.31 ]

Practical organic chemistry (0) -- [ c.84 , c.94 ]

Advanced organic synthesis (1971) -- [ c.179 , c.180 ]

Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes (2000) -- [ c.51 ]