It is important to stress that unnecessary thermodynamic function evaluations must be avoided in equilibrium separation calculations. Thus, for example, in an adiabatic vapor-liquid flash, no attempt should be made iteratively to correct compositions (and K s) at current estimates of T and a before proceeding with the Newton-Raphson iteration. Similarly, in liquid-liquid separations, iterations on phase compositions at the current estimate of phase ratio (a)r or at some estimate of the conjugate phase composition, are almost always counterproductive. Each thermodynamic function evaluation (set of K ) should be used to improve estimates of all variables in the system.  [c.118]

High temperature. The use of high temperatures in combination with high pressures greatly increases stored energy in a plant. The heat required to obtain a high temperature is often provided by furnaces. These have a number of hazards, including possible rupture of the tubes carrying the process fluid and explosions in the radiant zone. There are also materials of construction problems associated with high-temperature operation. The main problem is creep, which is the gradual extension of a material which is under a steady tensile stress over a prolonged period of time.  [c.267]

The name is also given to a balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin, which is carminative and mildly expectorant.  [c.56]

Prepared by healing benzaldehyde with sodium ethanoate and ethanoic anhydride (Perkin reaction) or with ethyl ethanoate and sodium ethoxide. Occurs in storax, or liquid  [c.100]

R COO)CH2-CH(OOCR )CH2(OOCR ). The fats are esters of fatty acids with glycerol with the general formula shown R , R and R may be the same fatty acid residue, but in general the fats are mixed glycerides, each fatly acid being different. The fatty acids present in the greatest quantity in fats are oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The term oil is usually applied to those glycerides which are liquid at 20 C, and the term fat to those that are solid at that temperature.  [c.172]

Ordinary glucose is ct-glucopyranose monohydrate m.p. 80-85°C and [ajp 4-113-4 . In solution it gives a mixture with the form with [alo 4-52-5 . It is manufactured from starch by hydrolysis with mineral acids, purification and crystallization, and is widely used in the confectionery and other food industries. It is about 70% as sweet as sucrose.  [c.191]

All hydrophilic colloids possess some degree of protective action and gelatin, starch and casein are used commercially for this purpose.  [c.331]

SNG Substitute natural gas. soaps Sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, particularly stearic, palmitic and oleic acids. Animal and vegetable oils and fats, from which soaps are prepared, consist essentially of the glyceryl esters of these acids. In soap manufacture the oil or fat is heated with dilute NaOH (less frequently KOH) solution in large vats. When hydrolysis is complete the soap is salted out , or precipitated from solution by addition of NaCl. The soap is then treated, as required, with perfumes, etc. and made into tablets.  [c.362]

Starch is insoluble in cold water, but in hot water the granules gelatinize to form an opalescent dispersion. It is made from corn, wheat, potatoes, rice and other cereals by various physical processes such as steeping, milling and sedimentation. It is used as an adhesive, for sizing paper and cloth, as an inert diluent in foods and drugs, and for many other purposes.  [c.371]

Starch can be split into amylose and amylopectin by a commercial process based on selective solubilities. Amylose is used for making edible films, and amylopectin for textile sizing and finishing, and as a thickener in foods.  [c.371]

CH3CH2OH. Colourless liquid with a pleasant odour, b.p. 78-3 C. Miscible with water with evolution of heat and contraction in volume pure ethanol absorbs water vapour. Many gases are more soluble in it than in water. Some inorganic salts and many organic compounds are soluble in ethanol. It occurs only rarely in nature, except as a result of the fermentation of sugary plant juices by yeasts, and less often by certain bacteria and moulds. Alcohol was formerly manufactured almost exclusively by the fermentation of materials containing starch and sugars, but this method is now relatively unimportant. Most is at present made by the catalytic hydration of ethene, or by the hydrolysis of the mono- and di-ethyl sulphates formed by absorbing ethene in 90% sulphuric acid. The ethene is obtained from refinery gases or other petroleum fractions by cracking. Because ethanol forms an azeotrope with water it is not possible to obtain a product containing more than 95-6% alcohol by weight by straightforward fractionation of an aqueous solution. For the manufacture of 100% ethanol azeotropic distillation is employed. Ethanol is oxidized to ethanal or ethanoic acid with nitric acid a variety of products, including glycollic and oxalic acids are formed. Ethanolales (ethoxides) are formed by the action of sodium, calcium, aluminium and some other metals on ethanol. It reacts with acids to give esters. With sulphuric acid it yields ether, ethene or ethyl hydrogen sulphate. Bleaching powder converts it to chloroform, while chlorine gives chloral. Ethanol is used as a starting point for the manufacture of other chemicals, principally ethanal, in foodstuffs and as a solvent. U.S. production 1981 600 000 tonnes. Its pharmacological effects are basically those of a central depressant, low doses having an apparently stimulant effect due to the removal of normal inhibitory influences.  [c.164]

D-glucose, dextrose, C Hi20 . The most common hexose sugar. It is present in many plants, and is the sugar of the blood. It is a constituent of starch, cellulose, glycogen, sucrose and many glycosides, from all of which it can be obtained by hydrolysis with acids or enzymes.  [c.190]

C2aH,6. Yellow plates m.p. 240-242°C. Steric crowding prevents rings A and B becoming co-planar and they adopt a staggered configuration. Since the molecular geometry is similar to the first turn of a helix the molecule exists as an enantiomeric mixture (right-hand helix and left-hand helix). The enantiomers have been separated by resolution using a rt-acid complex.  [c.203]

Light emitted from an ordinary source, such as a filament lamp, is not of a single wavelength (non-monochromalic) and neither is it coherently phased, i.e. the wave fronts are out of step with one another. When an atom in its ground state ( 0) absorbs energy (photons) it is excited to a higher energy level ( 1). The energy absorbed may now be spontaneously released either immediately or after some time to yield the ground state of the atom once more. In a laser, however, the excited atom is struck by a photon of exactly the same energy as the one which would be emitted spontaneously. The excited atom is stimulated to emit a photon and return to the ground condition with the result that two photons of precisely the same wavelength are produced. The process can now be repeated throughout the system.  [c.235]

By saccharic acid is usually meant D-gluco-saccharic acid, m.p. 125-126°C, obtained by the oxidation of glucose or starch. This exists in water solution in equilibrium with its two y lactones, both of which can be obtained crystalline, though the acid itself does not crystallize readily.  [c.350]

Starch consists of amylose, v hich is water-soluble and retrogrades on concentration forming an insoluble precipitate, and amy-lopectin, a mucilaginous substance with the characteristic paste-forming properties. Amylose is composed of long straight chains containing 200-1000 glucose units linked by a-1,4-glycoside links amylopeclm consists of comparatively short chains (about 20 glucose units) cross-linked by a-1,6-glycoside links. Both amylose and amylopectin have been synthesized from glucose-1-phosphate by the action of the enzyme phosphorylase.  [c.371]

C,2H220ii,2H20. M.p. 9TC. A non-reducing disaccharide, which forms the principal carbohydrate of insect haemolymph. It comprises about 25% of trehala manna, the cocoons of a parasitic beetle. Trehalose also occurs in fungi, e.g. Amanita muscaria, generally replacing sucrose in plants lacking chlorophyll and starch.  [c.403]

See pages that mention the term Strike : [c.33]    [c.41]    [c.44]    [c.50]    [c.61]    [c.86]    [c.103]    [c.108]    [c.130]    [c.130]    [c.140]    [c.150]    [c.168]    [c.173]    [c.180]    [c.183]    [c.192]    [c.219]    [c.233]    [c.234]    [c.248]    [c.295]    [c.296]    [c.314]    [c.316]    [c.354]    [c.361]    [c.369]    [c.371]    [c.371]    [c.371]    [c.372]    [c.381]    [c.391]   
Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Volume 1 (1996) -- [ c.247 ]