Cementing head

Figure 4-380. Blender, pump truck, cementing head and subsurface equipment [161]. Figure 4-380. Blender, pump truck, cementing head and subsurface equipment [161].
Figure 4-381. Cementing head [161], Figure 4-381. Cementing head [161],
While the casing string is hanging in the elevators a cementing head is made up to the upper end of the string (see Figure 4-381). The cementing head is then connected with flow liners that come from pump truck (see Figure 4-380). The blender mixes the dry cement and additives with water. The high-pressure, low-volume triplex cement pump on the pump truck pumps the cement slurry to the cementing head. Usually a preflush or spacer is initially pumped ahead of the cement slurry. This spacer (usually about 15 to 25 bbl) is used to assist in removing the drilling mud from the annular space between the outside of the casing and the borehole wall.  [c.1203]

When cementing operation is completed, bleed off internal pressure inside the casing and leave valve open on cementing head.  [c.1207]

Such so-called devitrifying frits are employed extensively as sealing frits for bonding glasses, ceramics, and metals. Other apphcations include cofired multilayer substrates for electronic packaging (4), matrices for fiber-reinforced composite materials (5), refractory cements and corrosion-resistant coatings, and honeycomb stmctures in heat exchangers. These products take advantage of the complete densification, thermal stabiUty, and wide range of physical properties possible in glass-ceramic systems, and provide a number of advantages over conventional glass frits. Products incorporating glass-ceramic seals, for example, can be reheated to thek soldering temperature without deformation.  [c.320]

Assembling and potting (cementing together) of hoUow-fiber bundles, as shown in Eigure 1, require great care and precision technology. The potting agent must be compatible with the function assigned to the fiber, as weU as with the fiber material. Eor example, the potting materials employed in a hemodialysis cartridge (Eig. 12) must be blood-compatible and nontoxic, and adhere to the exterior surface of the fibers as weU as to the fiber-housing unit. Another factor important in the selection of a potting agent is its surface tension (abUity to wet fibers yet not excessively wick). Commonly employed potting agents include epoxy resins (qv), polyurethanes, and sUicone mbbers. A potting agent is used in a Uquid form that is eventuaUy polymerized and cured in bulk (without solvent). In general, the potting agent must not shrink or evolve excess heat when cured it must not penetrate the fiber, plug the bore, wick on the fiber waUs, or damage any ultrathin coating. It must be hard enough after curing so as not to creep under pressure (cmcial for ultrafiltration, gas separation, and reverse osmosis) and to be capable of further mechanical machining, ie, placed in a lathe and cut to open hoUow-fiber bores for reverse osmotic flow.  [c.151]

Compacting tools must be propedy designed, constmcted, and fitted to the press. These maybe made of heat-treated steel or cemented carbide, depending on the economics and number of parts to be produced. Carbide tools are more expensive however, they can be used much longer than steel tools.  [c.183]

Colorants. The pigmentary forms of copper phthalocyanine are by far the most important commercial products of that class. They provide excellent color properties, excellent resistance to heat and light, acid and alkaU, and are extremely insoluble in most solvents. They are less expensive than other organic pigments and color practically every type of printing ink, paint, plastic, and textile. Other uses include the coloring of roofing granules, cements and plasters, fine art paint, soaps, detergents, and other cleaning products (157). The two principal classes of copper phthalocyanine pigments are the blues and the greens. The blues maybe further classified as the a- and -crystal types, and the greens as the chlorinated and brominated derivatives.  [c.506]

For example, low carbon wrought-kon bars were packed in air-tight containers together with charcoal or other carbonaceous material. By heating the containers to a red heat and hoi ding them at that temperature for several days, the wrought kon absorbed carbon from the charcoal this method became known as the cementation process. If the kon is made in primitive furnaces, carbon can be absorbed from the charcoal fuel during and after its reduction. The Romans, for instance, built and operated furnaces that produced a steel-like metal instead of wrought kon. In neither of the two foregoing cases did the kon or steel become molten.  [c.373]

Both processes were practiced in secret for some time after thek revival, and Httie is known of thek early history. The cementation process flourished in the United Kingdom during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and continued to be used to a limited extent into the early part of the twentieth century.  [c.373]

Self-Supporting Structures. Self-supporting stmctures of carbon and graphite are used in a variety of ways. Water-cooled graphite towers serve as chambers for the burning of phosphoms in air. The high thermal conductivity of graphite allows rapid heat transfer to a water film on the outside of the tower, thereby maintaining inside wall temperature below 500°C, the oxidation temperature threshold of graphite. Phosphoms combustion chambers six meters in diameter by eleven meters in height (8) have been built using cemented graphite block constmction.  [c.515]

Many types of impervious graphite shell and tube, cascade, and immersion heat exchangers are in service throughout the world (11). The most common is the shell and tube design where an impervious graphite tube bundle with fixed and floating covers is employed in combination with a steel shell. Whenever parts must be joined, such as the tube to the tube sheet in a shell and tube heat exchanger, very thin resin cement joints are used. These resin cements have the same corrosion-resistant characteristics as the resins used to impregnate the graphite. Because of the high thermal conductivity of graphite, heat exchangers fabricated of impervious graphite have thermal efficiencies equal to metal heat exchangers of equivalent heat-transfer area. Heat exchangers up to 1.8 m diameter with areas up to 1300 m are commercially available with operating pressures to 690 kPa (100 psi) and temperatures up to 170°C (12-14) (see Heat exchange technology).  [c.515]

The composition of the Hquid phase during the early hydration of Portiand cements is controlled mainly by the solution of calcium, sulfate, sodium, and potassium ions. Very Httie alumina, siHca, or iron are present in solution. Calcium hydroxide, as calcium oxide, and gypsum, as calcium sulfate, alone have solubihties of about 1.1 and 2.1 g/L at 25°C, respectively. In the presence of alkaHes released in the first 7 min, the composition tends to be governed by the equiHbrium  [c.289]

Blended cements. Pordand cement clinker is also interground with suitable other materials such as granulated blast-furnace slags and natural or artificial pozzolans. These substances also show hydrauhc activity when used with cements, and the blended cements (75) bear special designations such as Pordand blast-furnace slag cement or Pordand—pozzolan cement. Pozzolans are used in making concrete both as an interground component of the cement and as a direct addition to the concrete mix. It is only when the two materials are interground that the mixture can be referred to as Pordand—pozzolan cement. Pordand—pozzolan cements (76) were developed originally to provide concretes of improved economy and durabiUty in marine, hydrauhc, and underground environments they also prevent deleterious alkah—aggregate reactions. Blast-furnace slag cements (77) also reduce deleterious alkah—aggregate reactions and can be resistant to seawater if the slag and cement compositions are suitably restricted. Both cements hydrate and harden more slowly than Pordand cement. This can be an advantage in mass concrete stmctures where the lower rates of heat hberation may prevent excessive temperature rise, but when used at low temperatures the rate of hardening may be excessively slow. Pordand blast-furnace slag cements may be used to advantage in steam-cured products which can have strengths as high as obtained with Pordand cement. Interest in the use of blended cements is stimulated by energy conservation and sohd waste utilization considerations.  [c.296]

The heating element of a forced circulation evaporator is usually of the conventional shell-and-tube type, most often single pass and vertical but frequendy multiple pass and horizontal. The heater is usually located fat enough below the Hquor level in the body so that hydrostatic head prevents boiling in the tubes. In crystallizing service it is desirable, but not always possible, to locate the heater far enough below the Hquor level so that boiling does not occur even in a tube which has had its inlet blocked and thus has Hquor in temperature equiHbrium with the heating medium. This avoids complete filling of the tube with cemented soHds which ate most difficult to remove. Tube size and length are chosen to give reasonable (1.5—3-m/s) tube velocities for the circulation rate available and the heating surface needed. In crystallizing service, small (less than 0.03-m) tube diameters are avoided to reduce risk of plugging, and the heaters are preferably vertical single-pass to afford more uniform distribution of dow to all tubes. Vortices in circulating lines and heater-inlet water boxes may result in such nonuniform velocities that there is Httie or no dow at all in some tubes and these quickly became plugged with soHds.  [c.473]

Aluminum is not commonly used as an alloying element in steel to improve oxidation resistance, as the amount required interferes with both workability and high-temperature-strength properties. However, the development of high-aluminum surface layers by various methods, including spraying, cementation, and dipping, is a feasible means of improving heat resistance of low-alloy steels.  [c.2423]

The furan or furane resins mainly find use because of their excellent chemical and heat resistance. In the past they have mainly been used in applications peripheral to the plastics industry such as foundry resins, for chemically resistant cements and for binders. Recent developments have facilitated their use in laminates for chemical plant.  [c.810]

Tube and shell heat exchangers, small distillation columns, reactors, valves, pumps and other items are available in impregnated grapliite. Graphite can be joined only by cementing, which embrittles on aging. It is prone to mechanical damage, particularly when subjected to tensile stresses.  [c.102]

Multi-stage preheating, pre-calciners, kiln combustion system improvements, enhancement of internal heat transfer in kiln, kiln shell loss reduction, optimize heat transfer in clinker cooler, use of waste fuels Blended cements, cogeneration  [c.755]

It is quite desirable to place water into an open-hole section prior to running a casing or liner siring and cementing. The water will provide a hydraulic head to hold back any formation gas in the open-hole section that could cause a fire hazard at the rig floor.  [c.849]

This string acts as a guide for the remaining casing strings into the hole. The purpose of conductor string is also to cover unconsolidated formations and to seal off shallow overpressured formations. The conductor string is the first string that is always cemented to the top and equipped with casing head and blowout prevention (BOP) equipment.  [c.1128]

Figure 4-389 gives a series of schematics that show how the spacer and cement slurry displace drilling mud in the well. Two wiper plugs are usually used to separate the spacer and the cement slurry from the drilling mud in the well. The cementing head has two retainer valves that hold the two flexible rubber wiper plugs with two separate plug-release pins (see Figure 4-389a). When the spacer and the cement slurry are to be pumped to the inside of the casing Figure 4-389 gives a series of schematics that show how the spacer and cement slurry displace drilling mud in the well. Two wiper plugs are usually used to separate the spacer and the cement slurry from the drilling mud in the well. The cementing head has two retainer valves that hold the two flexible rubber wiper plugs with two separate plug-release pins (see Figure 4-389a). When the spacer and the cement slurry are to be pumped to the inside of the casing
When the top wiper plug reaches the float collar, the pump pressure rises sharply again. This wiper plug does not have a diaphragm and, therefore, no further flow into the well can take place. At this point in the cementing operation the cement pump is usually shut down and the pressure released on the cementing head. The back-flow valve in the float collar stops the heavier cement slurry from flowing back into the inside of the casing string (see Figure 4-389e). The volume of spacer and cement slurry is calculated to allow the cement slurry to either completely fill the annulus, or to fill the annulus to a height sufficient to accomplish the objectives of the casing and cementing operation.  [c.1205]

The calcareous sediment produced in either manner may become contaminated during deposition with argillaceous, siUceous, or fermginous silts, which affect the chemical composition and nature of the resulting limestone. The size and shape of the calcareous particles, together with conditions of pressure, temperature, and solvent action to which a deposition is subsequendy exposed, are factors that induence the physical characteristics of the stone. The degree of consoHdation of the calcareous sediment ranges from Htde change, as exhibited by the soft mads and chalks in which the skeletal particles are loosely cemented, to the metamorphosed, dense, crystalline rock, marble, which shows no indication of its origin. Between these two extremes many types and kinds of limestone are known. Examples of limestone in the process of formation are the globigerina ooze, which covers vast areas of bottom at ocean depths of 1800—5500 m, and coral reefs in tropical seas.  [c.165]

More recently, a Hquid-phase metal sintering process was successfully appHed to nitrides and carbonitrides, which normally have poor wettiag properties. The oxygen content of the prematerial is kept below 0.05% and suitable bonding alloys based on Ni—Mo and Ni—Mo—C are iatroduced (36,37). This biader composition is especially effective ia wettiag the nitride or carbonitride particles during sintering and in removing the adhering oxide layers. Cemented titanium carbonitrides having a nickel—molybdenum binder compare well with cemented carbides of this ISO-P series corresponding to C-5 to C-8 grades of the U.S. industry code for cemented carbides (see Carbides, cemented carbides). TiN is scarcely soluble in soHd iron and is much less so than TiC, hence TiN has favorable frictional quaUties and htde tendency toward local welding and sei2ing during cutting operations. Sealing rings of cemented carbonitride have proved satisfactory in difficult chemical environments.  [c.56]

Quaternary carbonitride alloys based on (Ti,Mo)(C,N) tend to separate into two isotypic phases one (eg, Ti(C,N)) is rich in nitrogen and poor in molybdenum, and the other (eg, (Ti,Mo)C) contains nearly all of the molybdenum but Htde nitrogen. This spinodal decomposition reaction has been apphed to the production of cemented carbonitride alloys, ie, spinodal alloys, that show superior cutting performance and very Htde wear, especially when used to machine cast iron and chilled cast iron (38). More recent work has been carried out with regard to TaN(HfN)—TaC(HfN) alloys and alloys containing the cubic TaN (39,40). Hot-pressed cemented hard metals based on TaN—ZrB2 are far more suitable for the machining of high melting metals and superalloys than are cemented carbides (41).  [c.56]

RCF is sold in a variety of forms, such as loose fiber, blanket, boards, modules, cloth, cements, putties, paper, coatings, felt, vacuum-formed shapes, rope, braid, tape, and textiles. The products are principally used for industrial appHcations as insulation in furnaces, heaters, kiln linings, furnace doors, metal launders, tank car insulation, and other uses up to 1400°C. RCF-consuming industries include ferrous and nonferrous metals, petrochemical, ceramic, glass, chemical, fertiH2er, transportation, constmction, and power generation/incineration. Some newer uses include commercial fire protection and appHcations in aerospace, eg, heat shields and automotive, eg, catalytic converters, metal reinforcement, heat shields, brake pads, and airbags.  [c.56]

Shortages and escalating costs of Co in the 1970s prompted tool-steel producers to seek an appropriate substitute. Hot hardness can be maintained without Co by appropriate increases of Mo—W or V content, or both (26). Higher concentrations of these latter elements in the matrix provide equivalent sohd—solution strengthening at elevated temperatures. The compositions of steel grades with and without Co, yielding similar performance, are given in Table 6 (26). Micrographs of heat-treated (quenched and tempered) AlSl M-42 tool steels with and without Co are shown in Figure 5. Despite heavy competition from cemented carbide, coated carbide, and ceramic tool materials, as of this writing (ca 1997) HSS accounts for the largest toimage of tool materials used because of its unique properties (chiefly the toughness and the fracture resistance), flexibiUty in fabrication, and the fact that many cutting operations have to be conducted at a low enough speed range for HSS to perform efficiently and economically.  [c.199]

A newer tool steel material having a fine grain size of TiC (40—55%) in a steel matrix (45—60%) with several unique characteristics was developed. Additional Cr (3—17.5%), Mo (0.5—4%), Ni (0.5—12%), Co (5—5.7%), Ti (0.5—0.7%), and C (0.4—0.85%) are made to provide soHd solution strengthening as weU as hot hardness of the matrix material (29—31). This material, which combines the hardness (consequendy, the wear resistance) of cemented carbides with the heat treatabiHty of HSS, responds to heat treatment, such as annealing and quench hardening, and can be machined in the aimealed condition. The material is produced by initially compacting TiC powder in a steel die. The resulting porous compact is sintered at high temperature and subsequendy infiltrated with molten steel under vacuum. The upper limit of TiC content is determined by the degree of machinahility desired in the aimealed condition. The microstmcture of this material in the annealed condition shows weU rounded carbide grains in a spheroidite steel matrix and in the quenched condition in a fine martensite matrix. The relatively wide separation between carbide particles in the annealed condition accounts for its good machinabiHty.  [c.200]

Another HSS tool material, similar to the TiC in a steel matrix, is comprised of 30—60% of submicrometer (ca 0.1 -lm) TiN hard phase dispersed in a heat treatable steel (Coronite) (32). It can be seen that the percentage of hard phase, TiN in this alloy is higher than in HSS but less than the lowest limit of cemented carbide. It is thus harder than any conventional HSS, but tougher than most cemented carbides. At the same time, the fine grain size of TiN ensures exceUent edge strength especially for milling cutters, drills, etc used in the machining of steels. Because TiN is also chemically more stable when machining steels, this combined material should fiH the gap between HSS and cemented carbide. This material can be heat-treated and ground more easily than the cemented TiC counterpart. Tools consist of a steel (HSS or spring steel) core on which the TiN—HSS material is pressed using powder metallurgy technology to comprise about 15% of the diameter. The outer surface can then be coated with TiCN or TiN by PVD.  [c.200]

Other. Vinyl acetate resins are useful as antishrinking agents for glass fiber-reinforced polyester mol ding resins (165). Poly(vinyl acetate)s are also used as binders for numerous materials, eg, fibers, leather (qv), asbestos, sawdust, sand, clay, etc, to form compositions that can be shaped with heat and pressure. Joint cements, taping compounds, caulks, and fillers are other uses.  [c.471]

Steel containers are mechanically stronger than plastic and easier to fabricate in large sizes. Also they dissipate heat better and tend to keep the electrodes cooler during high temperature or high rate operations. However, cells assembled in steel containers must not hav e contact with each other during assembly to prevent intercell shorts. Plastic containers are the better option for most small and medium-sized cells because they require no protection against corrosion, they permit visual observation of the electroltye levH, they are lighter than steel containers, they can be closely packed into a battery, and small cells can be cemented or taped into batteries, eliminating a tray.  [c.547]

Glazing. Polyacrylates and polycarbonates are the resins most widely used for glazing. They are light in weight, easily formed, and provide heat and sound insulation. Their chief advantage is their resistance to breakage and their failure to shatter when they break. Coatings of fluoropolymers often are used to improve abrasion resistance, and cross-linked polysiHcate, almost as hard as glass, has been used. Some grades of polyacrylates can be cemented with solvents instead of with adhesives that need curing. The surface can be rippled or given a matte finish, or it can act as a sunscreen.  [c.333]

Next to Cr C2, TiC is the principal component for heat and oxidation-resistant cemented carbides. TiC-based boats, containing aluminum nitride, AIN, boron nitride, BN, and titanium boride, TiB2, have been found satisfactory for the evaporation of metals (see Boron compounds, refractory boron compounds Nitrides).  [c.450]

The development of coatings (qv) of unaHoyed, refractory carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, and oxides on cemented carbide cutting tools has, in many cases, lessened the need for cubic soHd-solution carbides in metal-cutting compositions. The soHd solutions are harder and more heat-resistant than the pure components, and are substantiaHy free from oxygen, nitrogen, and graphite because they are subjected to a type of autopurification during the diffusion annealing of the soHd solutions. The vacuum-purified carbide soHd solutions of the metals of Groups 4 (IVB), 5 (VB), and 6 (VIB) are wetted more readHy by cobalt than are the unaHoyed cubic carbides they are also tougher.  [c.453]

Hydrau/ic cements are intermediate products used for making concretes, mortars, grouts, asbestos—cement products, and other composite materials (qv). High early strength cements may be required for precast concrete products or in high-rise building frames to permit rapid removal of forms and early load carrying capacity. Cements of low heat of hydration maybe required for use in massive stmctures, such as gravity dams, to prevent excessive temperature rise and thermal contraction and cracking during subsequent cooling. Concretes exposed to seawater or sulfate-containing ground waters require cements that are sulfate-resistant after hardening.  [c.295]

Calcium aluminate cement (81) develops very high strengths at eady ages. It attains neady its maximum strength in one day, which is much higher than the strength developed by Pordand cement in that time. At higher temperatures, however, the strength drops off rapidly. Heat is also evolved rapidly on hydration and results in high temperatures long exposures under moist warm conditions can lead to failure. Resistance to corrosion in sea or sulfate waters, as well as to weak solutions of mineral acids, is outstanding. This cement is attacked rapidly, however, by alkah carbonates. An important use of high alumina cement is in refractory concrete for withstanding temperatures up to I500°C. White calcium aluminate cements, with a fused aggregate of pure alumina, withstand temperatures up to I800°C.  [c.296]

Table 10-38 lists standard sizes of pipe V2-, V4-, and %-in sizes are heat-exchanger tubing, and standard fittings are not available for these sizes. Pipe is shipped threaded on request. National Form straight threads are useci. Fittings made from the same material with the same thread form are available and include laps which can be screwed on the ends of pipe and stub ends which can be screwed into the fittings, both for the purpose of making flanged lap joints. All threaded joints are permanently bonded by special cements. Flanged joints use split cast-iron backup flanges which have 150-lb ANSI B16.5 bolting in sizes 6 in and smaller and 300-lb ANSI B16.5 bolting in sizes 8 in and larger. Asbestos sheet packing is used between the flange and the back of the lap to equahze bearing. Pipe can be sawed  [c.975]

Fleat transfer cements are quite useful for transferring the heat from an external tracing when attached outside of the process pipe, Figures 10-167 and 10-168. To determine the number of heat transfer steam tracers, it is important to contact the manufacturer of the heat transfer cement. The illustrations here should be considered preliminary for approximating purposes. The information/data that follows is used with permission from Thermon Manufacturing Co./Cellex Div. Except for specific conditions, most applications represent the requirements to maintain a pipe (or vessel) system temperature, not to raise or lower the temperature.  [c.242]

See pages that mention the term Cementing head : [c.1181]    [c.1204]    [c.246]    [c.188]    [c.194]    [c.210]    [c.473]    [c.2470]    [c.89]    [c.71]    [c.1176]   
Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Volume 1 (1996) -- [ c.1203 ]