Big-eyed bit

M.p. 114-116 C. Prepared by racemization of hyoscyamine. It and its salts are used to dilate the pupil of the eye. Given internally they reduce the secretion of saliva and relieve spasmodic pains.  [c.46]

Exploration activities are potentially damaging to the environment. The cutting down of trees in preparation for an onshore seismic survey may result in severe soil erosion in years to come. Offshore, fragile ecological systems such as reefs can be permanently damaged by spills of crude or mud chemicals. Responsible companies will therefore carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) prior to activity planning and draw up contingency plans should an accident occur. In Section 4.0 a more detailed description of health, safety and environmental considerations will be provided.  [c.15]

If no prior drilling activities have been recently carried out in the area, usually an environmental impact assessment (EIA) will be carried out as a first step. An EIA is usually undertaken to  [c.42]

An EIA may have to include concerns such as  [c.42]

Keywords awareness, lost time incident (LTI), management commitment, employee commitment, attitude, HAZOP studies, transport, accident investigation, safety triangle, safety management systems, auditing, contractor safety, quantitative risk analysis (QRA), procedures, environmental impact assessment (EIA), environmental impact statement (EIS), fishing, gas venting, greenhouse effect, oil-in-water emissions, CFG gases, waste disposal.  [c.65]

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)  [c.70]

The objective of an EIA Is to document the potential physical, biological, social and health effects of a planned activity. This will enable decision makers to determine whether an activity is acceptable and if not, identify possible alternatives. Typically, ElA s will be carried out for  [c.70]

Essentially EIA is a systematic process that examines the environmental consequences of development actions, in advance. The emphasis of EIA is on prevention. The role of EIA has changed with time. Originally it was regarded very much as a defensive tool whereas now it is moving to apply techniques which can add positive value to the environment and society in general. The EIA should be regarded as a process which is constantly changing in response to shifting environmental pressures.  [c.72]

Certain key stages in the EIA process have been adopted by many countries. These broad stages reflect what is considered to be good practice within environmental assessment and include  [c.72]

EIA Preparation is the scientific and objective analysis of the scale, significance and importance of impacts identified. Various methods have been developed, in relation to baseline studies impact identification prediction evaluation and mitigation, to execute this task.  [c.72]

Public consultation and participation aims to assure the quality, comprehensiveness and effectiveness of the EIA, as well as to ensure that the public s views are adequately taken into consideration in the decision-making process.  [c.72]

EIS presentation a vital step in the process, the documentation serves to communicate the findings of the EIA process to interested parties.  [c.72]

Auditing follows on from monitoring. Auditing is being developed to test the scientific accuracy of impact predictions and as a check on environmental management practices. It can involve comparing actual outcomes with predicted outcomes, and can be used to assess the quality of predictions and the effectiveness of mitigation. It provides a vital feedback into the EIA process.  [c.73]

One particular common piece of legislation worth noting is the requirement for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be performed prior to any appraisal or development activity. An EIA is used to determine what impact an activity would have on the natural environment (flora, fauna, local population), and will be used to modify the activity plan until no negative impact is foreseen. More details of the EIA are given in Section 4.0.  [c.347]

The smallest difference of the optical density which the human eye can discern is approximately AD = 0.01 at density 2-2.5 provided the two areas with this density difference are of homogeneous density ( no noise) and of sufficient size, respectively. The limiting values of the granularity of the classes Cl to C6 of EN 584-1 vary between 0.018 to 0.039,  [c.551]

On the other hand it is well known that the hnman eye can adapt to changing inspection conditions in recognizing flaws while a camera system is not able to adapt automatically.  [c.628]

Contrast C is the contrast of the luminances between the object Lo and its surroundings Ls C = (Lo - Ls)/Ls. With increasing contrast, visibility increases Adaptation luminance L,d, is the luminance to which the eye adapts its sensitivity. It corresponds to the luminance of the field of vision. With increasing adaptation luminance, visibility increases.  [c.670]

Object dimension is defined as the viewing angle in radiant minutes under which the eye observes tbe object. With increasing dimension, the visibility increases.  [c.670]

With regard to existing ships the introduction of more meticulous surveys and the stipulation of increased thicknesses may enhance corrosion life whilst paradoxically extending the timescale over which fatigue cracking can occur. As the age of the world fleet increases the importance of early detection of fatigue cracking and the quantitative assessment of grooving corrosion will become more widely appreciated. Reliance upon the unaided human eye may be replaced by a combination of visual plus electromagnetic, ultrasonic or even radiographic inspection techniques. It is possible that changes to Rule requirements nominating the application of additional NDE during Special Surveys at locations identified by programmes such as Hull Condition Monitoring will eventually be introduced.  [c.1051]

There are various situations where good contact is desired between a liquid, usually an aqueous one, and an oily, greasy, or waxy surface. Examples would include sprays of various kinds, such as insecticidal sprays, which should wet the waxy surface of leaves or the epidermis of insects animal dips, where wetting of greasy hair is desired inks, which should wet the paper properly scouring of textile fibers, including the removal of unwanted natural oils and the subsequent wetting of the fibers by desirable lubricants the laying of dust, where a fluid must penetrate between dust particles as on roads or in coal mines [22]. The eye is lubricated by a tear film, important both for the normal eye and for contact lens tolerance [23] since both surfaces should be wet.  [c.467]

A beautiful and elegant example of the intricacies of surface science is the formation of transparent, thermodynamically stable microemulsions. Discovered about 50 years ago by Winsor [76] and characterized by Schulman [77, 78], microemulsions display a variety of useful and interesting properties that have generated much interest in the past decade. Early formulations, still under study today, involve the use of a long-chain alcohol as a cosurfactant to stabilize oil droplets 10-50 nm in diameter. Although transparent to the naked eye, microemulsions are readily characterized by a variety of scattering, microscopic, and spectroscopic techniques, described below.  [c.516]

We confine ourselves here to scanning probe microscopies (see Section VIII-2B) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which successive profiles of a surface (see Fig. VIII-1) are combined to provide a contour map of a surface. It is conventional to display a map in terms of dark to light areas, in order of increasing height above the surface ordinary contour maps would be confusing to the eye.  [c.688]

Cortisone is a hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands. As with other adrenal corticoid steroids, administration of cortisone leads to an increased deposition of liver glycogen. Tt can remove features of rheumatoid arthritis, but does not check the underlying disease it is used in various diseases of the eye, and is an antiallergic and anlifibroplastic agent.  [c.113]

C10H12N2O.V An intermediate in the metabolic breakdown of tryptophan. This proceeds mainly through cleavage of the indole ring to give formylkynurenine, which is hydrolysed to kynurenine this undergoes oxidation to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and side-chain cleavage at the carbonyl group gives 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid. This in part undergoes further ring fission with the formation of acyclic metabolites and of pyridine-carboxylic acids such as quinolinic and nicotinic acid. 3-Hydroxykynurenine is the biogenetic precursor of the ommochromes, eye pigments of insects and crabs.  [c.232]

The time taken to complete a base line study and EIA should not be underestimated. The baseline study describes and inventorises the natural initial flora, fauna, the aquatic life, land and seabed conditions prior to any activity. In seasonal climates, the baseline study may need to cover the whole year. The duration of an EIA depends upon the size and type of area under study, and the previous work done in the area, but may typically take six months. The EIA is often an essential step in project development and should not be omitted from the planning schedule.  [c.71]

In the early stages of an EIA a baseline studyls carried out, usually following the scoping stage (see below). The baseline study consists of the a description of those aspects of the physical, biological and social environment which could be affected by a proposed development. It is an before project audit. However, baseline studies may be required again later on in the project, for instance to help refine impact predictions. Baseline studies can account for a significant part of the overall EIA cost since they require extensive field studies.  [c.72]

Screening undertaken to decide which projects should be subjecHo environmental assessment. Screening may be partly determined by local EIA regulations. Criteria used include threshold, size of project, and sensitivity of the environment.  [c.72]

Scoping identifies, at an early stage, the most significant issues to be included in the EIA. Many early ElAs were criticised because they were encyclopaedic and included irrelevant information.  [c.72]

Classically it is accepted that the perceived image quality is determined by the signal to noise ratio present in an image. The signal is created by the difference in density caused by the object contrast. It can be interesting to estimate the density with which the image is viewed, to compare various observers. The window/level function is designed to manage the mapping of large number of greyscale levels to the human eye s more narrow greyscale sensitivity range. Figure 5 demonstrates how reducing the window (W) will increase the displayed image contrast, whereas increasing the window reduced displayed contrast. Also the level (L) shifts the range specified by the window, thereby making the image darker or brighter.  [c.502]

This relation is only valid for small Ad and small lateral extensions. The influence of the inherent unsharpness is not taken into consideration and besides this the ability of the human eye to integrate over an area for noise reduction is not considered, which would have positive effects on the perception oflarge or longish flaws (or wires).  [c.551]

If the molecule really had hannonic nonnal modes, the energy fonnula ( Al.2.6) would apply and tire spectmm would be extremely simple. It is connnon to speak of a progression in a mode a progression consists of tlie series of levels containing the fimdamental, with n. = 1, along with the overtone levels n. > 1. Each progression of a hannonic system would consist of equally spaced levels, with the level spacing given by the frequency co.. It is also common to speak of sequences, in which the sum of the number of quanta in two modes is fixed. In a hannonic spectmm, the progressions and sequences would be immediately evident to the eye in a plot of the energy levels.  [c.63]

See pages that mention the term Big-eyed bit : [c.199]    [c.384]    [c.50]    [c.64]    [c.117]    [c.207]    [c.216]    [c.346]    [c.422]    [c.71]    [c.72]    [c.48]    [c.640]    [c.643]    [c.117]    [c.171]    [c.171]   
Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Volume 1 (1996) -- [ c.1079 ]