A -Octahn

The data provided at the beginning of this chapter show that zinc has a melting point and boiling point much lower than the preceding transition metals. This allows zinc to be melted or distilled without difficulty, and distillation may be used to purify zinc from less volatile metals. The low boiling point is an indication of weak metallic bonding, which in turn indicates that the filled 2>d electron levels are not extensively involved in forming zinc-zinc bonds in the metal. Moreover, zinc in its chemical behaviour shows few characteristics of a transition element it exhibits only one oxidaton state, +2, in either ionic or covalent compounds, indicating the involvement only of the two outer, 4s electrons. Its compounds are commonly colourless, but it does show a somewhat greater tendency to form complexes than the analogous elements (Ca, Sr, Ba) of Group II.  [c.417]

Octan-2-ol (A), sometimes called sec.octy alcohol, can be obtained, at a low price and of high purity, from technical sources. As a secondary alcohol, it can be readily oxidised by potassium dichromate-sulphuric acid to n-hexyl  [c.224]

Obermiller, J. 179, 797 Ochiai, E. 217, 220 Oda, R. 16, 18, 30 Oestman, B. in, 720 Okamoto, T. 217, 220 Okamoto, Y. 141, 143, 194, ig8 Olah, G. A. I, 2, 4, IS, 30, 39, 47, 48, 5°, 51, 61-8, 70-2, 73, 74, 75, III, 113, 114, 118, 120, 121, 164, 188, ig3  [c.234]

A. F. B. Cameron, J. S. Hunt, J. F. Oughton, P. A. Wilkinson, and B. M. Wilson, J. Chem. Soc., 3864 (1953).  [c.182]

The preceding crude photo-adduct without purification is dissolved in 250 ml. of methanol and transferred to a 1-1., three-necked, round-bottomed fiask fitted with overhead stirrer with Teflon blade, addition funnel, and argon inlet. The solution is cooled with an ice bath and 500 ml. of 4 M aqueous sodium hydroxide is added over a period of 20 minutes with stirring. Upon completion of the addition, the ice bath is removed and stirring is continued for 16 hours. The brown solution is then extracted with four 500-ml. portions of chloroform. The organic extract is washed with saturated sodium chloride solution, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. Distillation of the residue through a 6-cm. Vigreux column affords, after a small forerun, 23.0-27.9 g. (47-57%) of 7-hydroxy-4,4,6,7-tetra-methylbicyclo[4.2.0]octan-2-one (Note 8) collected at 92-101 (0.2 mm.).  [c.115]

A 2-1., three-necked, round-bottomed flask, fitted with an overhead stirrer with Teflon blade, a Fries condenser, and a stopper, is charged with a solution of 9.8 g. (0.05 mole) of 7-hydroxy-4,4,6,7-tetramethyl-bicyclo[4.2.0]octan-2-one in 600 ml. of 50% (by volume) aqueous acetonitrile and 82 g. (0.15 mole) (Note 9) of ceric ammonium nitrate (Note 10) is added in one portion with stirring. Immediately after completion of the addition, the flask is immersed in an oil bath preheated to 170 . Refluxing occurs in about 10 minutes and is continued for 5 minutes. During this period the color of the solution changes from light brown to pale yellow. At the end of this time the reaction mixture is immediately poured onto crushed ice and extracted with four 600-ml. portions of chloroform. The combined extracts are washed with saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate and then saturated sodium chloride, dried over magnesium sulfate, and filtered. The solvent is removed under reduced pressure and the residue distilled, using a short-path distillation apparatus. All material boiling at 70-100 (0.25 mm.) is collected. Fractionation of the yellow oil through a 6-cm. Vigreux column gives 4.68-4.71 g. (48-50%) of 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-(2-oxopropyl)-2-cyclohexene-l-one, b.p. 81—85 (0.4 mm.) (Note 11).  [c.115]

Sebacic acid is normally made from castor oil, which is essentially glyceryl ricinoleate. The castor oil is treated with caustic soda at high temperature, e.g. 250°C, so that saponification, leading to the formation of ricinoleic acid is followed by a reaction giving sebacic acid and octan-2-ol Figure 18.5.  [c.481]

Photolysis of bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-one (A) gives B in good yield. When A labeled as shown is used, the aldehyde group carries deuterium to the extent of 51.7%. Write a mechanism to account for the overall transformation. Calculate the isotope effeet for the step in which hydrogen-atom transfer occurs. What mechanistic conclusion do you  [c.784]

P. L. Julian, W. Cole, A. Magnani and E. W. Meyer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 67, 1728 (1945) see also R. M. Evans, J. C. Hamlet, J. S. Hunt, P. G. Jones, A. G. Long, J. F. Oughton, L. Stephenson, T. Walker and B. M. Wilson,/. Chem. Soc., 1956, 4356.  [c.59]

J. Attenburrow, J. E. Connett, W. Graham, J. F. Oughton, A. C. Ritchie and P. A. Wilkinson, J. Chem. Soc., 1961, 4547.  [c.139]

R. M. Evans, J. C. Hamlet, J. S. Hunt, P. G. Jones, A. G. Long, J. F. Oughton, L. Stephenson, T. Walker and B. M. Wilson, J. Chem. Soc., 1956, 4356.  [c.364]

P. Skinner, M. W. Howard, I. A. Oxton, S. F. A. Ketde, D. B. Powell, and N. Sheppard./ Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2,1203, 1981. Vibrational spectroscopy (infrared) studies of an organometallic compound containing the ethylidyne ligand.  [c.458]

The cyclic carbamate (oxazoIidin-2-one) 313 is formed by the reaction of phenyl isocyanate (312) with vinyloxirane[I92]. Nitrogen serves as a nucleophile and attacks the carbon vicinal to the oxygen exclusively. The thermodynamically less stable Z-isomer 315 was obtained as a major product (10 I) by the reaction of 2-methoxy-l-naphthyI isocyanate (314) with a vinyloxir-  [c.332]

Bergamot oil has undergone a large number of investigations with regard to its trace components. In 1964, Firmenich chemists (23) claimed that i7j -jasmone (18) and <7j -5-oceten-2-one [19093-20-0] were important to the bergamot odor. In 1969, a series of novel trace bifunctional monoterpenoid molecules were characterized (24). Of these, two esters had very interesting citms odors they are the cis- and 1-acetates [64777-00-0, 64777-01-1] of 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-l,6-diol.  [c.307]

Petltg ra.in. Petitgrain oils are produced by steam distillation of leaves and twigs of the bitter orange tree, dims aurantium the same species used to produce orange flower oil. The so-called biogarde oil is produced from the tme bitter orange tree grown ia southern France, Italy, Spain, and northern Africa. Petitgrain Paraguay, by far the most used material of this type, is produced from the bitter-sour variety ia South America. The odor of these oils is fresh, bitter, and floral, with woody undertones. They are used widely ia perfumery, particularly ia citms colognes and floral bouquet perfumes. In addition, the oils, mainly the Paraguay version, are redistilled to give a useful terpeneless oil. Important odor constituents of petitgrain oils are linalyl acetate (1), linalool (3), methyl anthranilate, geraniol (8), and nerol [106-25-2], 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-l-ol.  [c.79]

Successful analysis of amino acids with gas chromatography is dependent on the synthesis of derivatives that are stable, yet volatile (123). The first step is esterification. A variety of alcohols have been used for esterification, including methanol, / -propanol, 2-propanol, / -butanol, and isobutyl alcohol, as weU as some optically pure alcohols, eg, (+)butan-2-ol, (+)octan-2-ol. The next step is A/-acylation by the addition of acetic anhydride, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) or heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), along with an appropriate solvent. Alkylsilylation which has the advantage of beiag a fast, one-step derivatization for all groups commonly encountered (NH, OH, SH, COOH) is a usehil tool for mass spectrometry. Trimethyl-sdylation also is weU-suited to chromatographic studies.  [c.285]

Titanium and Titanium Alloys" in ECT 1st ed., Vol 14, pp. 190—213, by C. H. Winter, Ji., and E. A. Gee, E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co., Inc. in ECT 1st ed., 2nd SuppI, pp. 866—873, by H. R. Ogden, BatteUe Memorial Institute in ECT 2nd ed., Vol 20, pp. 347—379, by H. B. Bomberger, Reactive Metals, Inc. in ECT3rd ed.,VoI 23, pp. 98—130, byD. Knittel, Cabot Corp.  [c.112]

J. A. Lewis, A. L. Ogden, D. Schroeder, and K. J. Duchow, Mater. Soc. Sjmp. Pmc. 289, 117 (1993).  [c.457]

W. G. Dukek, A. R. Ogston, and D. R. Winans, Milestones inMviation Fuels, AIAA No. 69—779, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, July 1969.  [c.418]

Small rings show high C—H absorption frequencies for the ring C—H bonds (between 3080 and 3000 cm ). The asymmetric C—H stretching frequency decreases with increasing ring size, from 3047 cm for aziridine to 2966 cm for azetidine and 2950 cm for pyrrolidine. Analogous changes are found in saturated oxygen heterocycles (3052, 2978, 2958 cm ) and their sulfur analogs (3047, 2968, 2959 cm ) (71PMH(4)265, p. 278). The stretching frequencies for exocyclic C=X bonds follow a similar sequence, with the smallest rings having the highest frequencies, as seen in Table 8. Four-membered rings have somewhat lower C=X frequencies the carbonyl frequency of azetidin-2-one is 1786 cm and that of oxetan-2-one is 1832 cm".  [c.12]

Anions of small heterocyclics are little known. They seem to be involved in some elimination reactions of oxetan-2-ones (80JA3620). Anions of large heterocycles often resemble their acyclic counterparts. However, anion formation can adjust the number of electrons in suitable systems so as to make a system conform to the Hiickel rule, and render it aromatic if flat geometry can be attained. Examples are found in Chapter 5.20. Anion formation in selected large heterocycles can also initiate transannular reactions (see also Section 5.02.7 below).  [c.18]

A substantial number of molecular rearrangements lead to the incorporation of heteroatoms into carbon-carbon chains. The Curtius, Beckmann, Hofmann, Lossen and Tiemann rearrangements can accomplish this for nitrogen, the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation does it for oxygen, to name just a few. If the heteroatom in these conversions is attached to a carbocyclic ring, and rearrangement of one ring segment to the heteroatom is effected, a heterocyclus of +1 members is formed (Scheme 5). Especially, rearrangements of the Beckmann type are commonly used to make large nitrogen-containing rings, such as azepinones (Section Analogously, the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation converts cyclohexanone to oxetan-l-one (Section  [c.34]

The submitters used a Varian 1200 FID chromatograph with a 7% Carbowax 20 M on Chromosorb Q, 8-ft x 0.125-1n column, a carrier gas (N2) flow rate of 40 mL/m1n, column 160°C, Injector 220 C, detector 215 C. Retention times were 3-methyl-2-cyclohexenone, 4.2 min, and 6-methylb1cyclo[4.2.0]octan-2-one, 3.9 min, respectively.  [c.120]

The apparatus used for the photocycloaddition reaction is shown in Figure 1. In the reaction vessel is placed a solution of 34.5 g. (0.25 mole) of 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-l-one (isophorone) (Note 1) and 500 g. (5 moles) (Note 2) of isopropenyl acetate (Note 3) in 625 ml. of benzene. A constant and moderate flow of argon (Note 4) is maintained to agitate the solution throughout the reaction period. The trap is filled with isopropyl alcohoI-dry ice (Note 5). The solution is irradiated with a 450-watt Hanovia high-pressure quartz mercury vapor lamp using a Pyrex filter for 96 hours (Note 6). Concentration of the resultant solution under reduced pressure (water aspirator) gives 65-80 g. of crude 7-acetoxy-4,4,6,7-tetramethyIbicyclo[4.2.0]octan-2-one (Note 7).  [c.113]

Caution The catalyst is ojten pyrophoric and should be kept moistened with alcohol. Celite is a diatomaceous earth filter aid.  [c.6]

Meticulous care needs to be used in the application of this tissue adhesive. Only a very thin layer of adhesive should be used to assist with reapproximation of the intima and adventitia. It is important to remember that the material should not be allowed to drip into or onto critical areas such as the ostium of the coronary arteries. Inadvertent placement of this agent in such areas can result in blockage of a critical artery and a potentially fatal myocardial infarction. In addition.  [c.1123]

This has been confirmed by Spath and Lorenz, who have shown that dihydro-0-conhydrinemethine must be a-dimethylamino-octan-j8-ol, MejN. CHj. CHOH. CHa. (CHa). CHj, since it is oxidised by chromic acid in acetic acid to a-dimethylamino-octan-(3-one, which has been synthesised from w-heptoylchloride by the action of diazomethane in ether, and treatment of the resulting a-chloro-w-octan-(3-one with dimethylamine.  [c.19]

See pages that mention the term A -Octahn : [c.172]    [c.25]    [c.189]    [c.51]    [c.72]    [c.225]    [c.224]    [c.225]    [c.43]    [c.163]    [c.201]    [c.473]    [c.389]    [c.357]    [c.278]    [c.169]    [c.377]    [c.110]    [c.119]    [c.226]    [c.113]    [c.311]    [c.116]   
Hydrogenation methods (1985) -- [ c.37 ]