Most glucose is metabolized to lactate because glycolysis is usually much faster than uptake rate of glycolytic intermediates. Glutamine acts as the primaiy source of nitrogen as well as providing additional carbon and energy. After glutamine is partially oxidized to glutamate, it can enter the TCA cycle and emerge as pyruvate. It has been estimated that between 30 and 6.5 percent of the cell energy reqmrement is derived from glutamine metabohsm when both glucose and glutamine are available. Ammonia is produced in the deamination of glutamine to form glutamate and in the formation of alpha-ketoglutarate.  [c.2134]

Absorption The engineering design of gas absorption equipment must be based on a sound application of the principles of diffusion, equilibrium, and mass transfer as developed in Secs. 5 and 14 of the handbook. The main reqmrement in equipment design is to bring the gas into intimate contact with the liquid that is, to provide a large interfacial area and a high intensity of interface renewal and to minimize resistance and maximize driving force. This contacting of the phases can be achieved in many different types of equipment, the most important being packed and plate columns. The final choice between them rests with the various criteria that must be met. For example, if the pressure drop through the column is large enough that compression costs become significant, a packed column may be preferable to a plate-type column because of the lower pressure drop.  [c.2185]

A typical reqmrement is to determine the cloud boundaiy at a fixed concentration. These boundaries, or lines, are called isopleths. The  [c.2342]

Figure 15-21 summarizes the results for the extraction of n-butylamine from kerosine into water in a continuously operated mixer [T = 0.37 m (1.23 ft) 2 = 0.48 m (1.562 ft)] fed cocurrently upward, with and without four wall baffles and with a variety of impellers [Overcashier, Kingsley, and Olney, Am. ln.st. Chem. Eng. ]., 2, 529 (1956)]. When unbaffled, the vessel was full and without an air-liquid interface. Eq represents the overall countercurrent efficiency of a single stage. Eq at zero agitator speed was 0.18 at a liquid residence time of 1.08 min. The improved performance in the absence of baffles may be attributed to the reduction in back mixing and to the reduced power reqmrement for a given impeller speed. In the absence of baffles, vertical location of the impeller is immaterial. With baffles, the best performance is given with the impeller at 0.667 Z from the bottom, the worst at 0.25 Z from the bottom. For the spiral turbine, wall baffles and stator-ring baffles produced the same power-efficiency relationship. Off-center unbaffled operation at a propeller was intermediate between centered baffled and centered unbaffled operation. The data for propellers, spiral turbines, and flat-blade turbines, d, = 0.10 to 0.25 m (0.333 to 0.833 ft), in both unbaffled and baffled tanks, with a flow rate to produce a residence time 0 = 0.18 h, kerosine-water ratio = 1.57 by volume, are empirically correlated by  [c.1467]

The former requires measurement of the initial settling rate of a pulp at different solids concentrations varying from feed to final underflow value. The area reqmrement for each solids concentration tested is calciilated by equating the net overflow rate to the corresponding interfacial settling rate, as represented by the following equation for the unit area  [c.1680]

See pages that mention the term Racemoramide : [c.2328]    [c.59]    [c.59]    [c.78]   
The organic chemistry of drug synthesis Vol.1 (1977) -- [ c.82 ]