At low pressures, it is often permissible to neglect nonidealities of the vapor phase. If these nonidealities are not negligible, they can have the effect of introducing a nonrandom trend into the plotted residuals similar to that introduced by systematic error. Experience here has shown that application of vapor-phase corrections for nonidealities gives a better representation of the data by the model, oven when these corrections  [c.106]

Vapor cloud explosions. Explosions which occur in the open air are vapor cloud explosions. A vapor cloud explosion is one of the most serious hazards in the process industries. Although a large toxic release may have a greater disaster potential, vapor cloud explosions tend to occur more frequently. Most vapor cloud explosions have been the result of leaks of flashing flammable liquids.  [c.258]

Also like distillation, the thermal profile of evaporators can be manipulated by changing the pressure. However, the degrees of freedom in evaporator design open up more options.  [c.362]

In most processes, the largest individual cost is raw materials. Raw materials costs and product prices tend to have the largest influence on the economic performance of the process. The value of raw materials and products depends on whether the materials in question are being bought and sold under a contractual arrangement (either within or outside the company) or on the open market (the spot price). Open-market prices can fluctuate considerably with time. Products are normally sold at below open-market price when under a contractual arrangement.  [c.407]

A number of sources of such data are available in the open literature. Unfortunately, the data to be used are often old, sometimes from a variety of sources, with different ages. Such data can be brought up to date and put on a common basis using cost indexes  [c.416]

Among the various chromatographic methods are adsorption column chromatography (use of a liquid phase in a solid column of adsorbent), partition column chromatography (distribution between two liquids in a column), thin-layer chromatography (partition on an open thin sheet), paper chromatography (use of a paper sheet as stationary phase), high pressure liquid chromatography, hplc, (partition column chromatography under high pressure), ion exchange chromatography (ion exchange), gas chromatography (distribution of a gaseous solute between a gas and a liquid or  [c.97]

The composition of coal tar varies with the carbonization method but consists, largely, of mononuclear and polynuclear aromatic compounds and their derivatives. Coke oven tars are relatively low in aliphatic and phenolic content while low-temperature tars have much higher contents of both.  [c.103]

High explosives. Those explosives which normally burn without undue violence when ignited in an open space, but which can be detonated by a sufficiently large sudden mechanical or explosive shock.  [c.171]

Performance can be illustrated for example by the time necessary for deaeration or de-emulsification of oils, anti-rust properties, copper strip corrosion test, the flash point in closed or open cup, the cloud and pour points, the foaming characteristics, etc.  [c.285]

A bitumen sample is oxidized at high temperature under well defined conditions and its physical characteristics are measured before and after this artificiai ageing process. The method is defined in France as AFNOR T 66-032 and in the USA by ASTM D 2872 (Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test).  [c.290]

The terms standards and specifications are constantly confused and interchanged in everyday use. The general opinion is that they are synonymous yet these two terms cover different concepts. Therefore, they — as well as the organizations that are responsible for their development — need to be defined.  [c.293]

Flash point - Cleveland NF EN 22592 ISO 2592 ASTM D 92 As above, open cup  [c.448]

A slim hole rig weighs about one fifth of a conventional rig and its small size can open new frontiers by making exploration economic in environmentally sensitive or inaccessible areas.  [c.52]

Running casing is the process by which 40 toot sections of steel pipe are screwed together on the rig floor and lowered into the hole. The bottom two joints will contain a guide shoe, a protective cap which facilitates the downward entry of the casing string through the borehole. Inside the guide shoe is a one way valve which will open when cement / mud is pumped down the casing and is displaced upwards on the outside ot the string. The valve is necessary because the at the end of the cementing process the column of cement slurry filling the annulus will be heavier than the mud inside the casing and U tubing would occur without it. To have a second barrier in the string, a float collar s inserted in the joint above the guide shoe. The float collar also catches the bottom plug and top plug between which the cement slurry is placed. The slurry of  [c.54]

A karst structure . e. a limestone formation which has been eroded resulting in a large scale, open system comparable to a cave  [c.59]

A low strength formation in which open fractures are initiated by too high mud pressure in the borehole  [c.59]

The consequences of lost circulation are dependent on the severity of the losses, i.e. how quickly mud is lost and whether the formation pressures in the open hole section are hydrostatic or above hydrostatic, i.e. overpressured (see below). Mud is expensive and losses are undesirable but they can also lead to a potentially hazardous situation. Moderate losses may be controlled by adding lost circulation material (LCM) to the mud system, such as mica flakes or coconut chippings. The LCM will plug the porous interval by forming a sealing layer around the borehole preventing further mud invasion. However, LCM may also plug elements of the mud circulation system e.g. bit nozzles and shale shaker screens and may later on impair productivity or injectivity of the objective intervals. In severe cases the losses can be controlled by squeezing cement slurry into the trouble horizon. This is obviously not a solution if the formation is the reservoir section  [c.59]

In many cases faults will only restrict fluid flow, or they may be open i.e. non-sealing. Despite considerable efforts to predict the probability of fault sealing potential, a reliable method to do so has not yet emerged. Fault seal modelling is further complicated by the fact that some faults may leak fluids or pressures at a very small rate, thus effectively acting as seal on a production time scale of only a couple of years. As a result, the simulation of reservoir behaviour in densely faulted fields is difficult and predictions should be regarded as crude approximations only.  [c.84]

Carbonate rocks are more frequently fractured than sandstones. In many cases open fractures in carbonate reservoirs provide high porosity / high permeability path ways for hydrocarbon production. The fractures will be continuously re-charged from the tight (low permeable) rock matrix. During field development, wells need to be planned to intersect as many natural fractures as possible, e.g. by drilling horizontal wells.  [c.85]

The largest series is that of the alkanes or paraffins, which are open chain molecules with saturated bonds, and have the general formula C H2n+2-  [c.90]

Open chain hydrocarbons which are undersaturated, i.e. having at least one carbon-carbon double bond are part of the olefin series, and have the ending -ene . Those with one carbon-carbon double bond are called mono-olefins or alkenes, for example ethylene CH2 = CH2.  [c.91]

Subsurface samples can be taken with a subsurface sampling chamber, called a sampling bomb, or with a repeat formation testing (RFT) tool or modular dynamic testing tool (MDT), all of which are devices run on wireline to the reservoir depth. The sampling bomb requires the well to be flowing, and the flowing bottom hole pressure (P,, ) should preferably be above the bubble point pressure of the fluid to avoid phase segregation. If this condition can be achieved, a sample of oil containing the correct amount of gas (Rgj scf/stb) will be collected. If the reservoir pressure is close to the bubble point, this means sampling at low rates to maximise the sampling pressure. The valves on the sampling bomb are open to allow the fluid to flow through the tool and are then hydraulically or electrically closed to trap a volume (typically 600 cm ) of fluid. This small sample volume is one of the drawbacks of subsurface sampling  [c.112]

A large investment is made by oil and gas companies in acquiring open hole log data. Logging activities can represent between 5% and 15% of total well cost. It is important therefore to ensure that the cost of acquisition can be justified by the value of information generated and that thereafter the information is effectively managed.  [c.131]

The point of zero heat flow in the grand composite curve in Fig. 6.24 is the pinch. The open jaws at the top and bottom represent Hmin and Qcmin, respectively. Thus the heat sink above the pinch and heat source below the pinch can be identified as shown in Fig.  [c.185]

The four kelohexoses are fructose, sorbose, allulose and tagatose. See glucose for example of isomerization between open chain and cyclic structures in a typical hexose molecule.  [c.204]

Morphine is the principal alkaloid of opium. It acts both as a base and as a phenol and reacts to form methylmorphine (codeine ) and diacetylmorphine (diamorphine or heroin).  [c.266]

The analysis of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen is most often based on a method of combustion drawn from the Dumas method. About 1 mg of the sample is placed in an oven heated to 1050°C and purged by a mixture of helium and oxygen. The combustion products pass over an oxidizing agent such as Cr203 or C03O4 where they are converted to CO2, H2O, and nitrogen oxides, NOj, and then carried off by an inert gas. The mixture passes across copper heated to 650°C which reduces the NO. to N2. The gases are separated in a gas chromatograph column equipped with a katharometer.  [c.28]

RTFOT rolling thin film oven test  [c.503]

See pages that mention the term Opium : [c.194]    [c.195]    [c.36]    [c.82]    [c.83]    [c.89]    [c.105]    [c.106]    [c.121]    [c.145]    [c.145]    [c.170]    [c.183]    [c.187]    [c.274]    [c.287]    [c.287]    [c.326]    [c.362]    [c.369]    [c.388]    [c.88]    [c.90]   
The organic chemistry of drug synthesis Vol.1 (1977) -- [ c.2 , c.4 , c.286 , c.287 ]