The program storage requirements will depend somewhat on the computer and FORTRAN compiler involved. The execution times can be corrected approximately to those for other computer systems by use of factors based upon bench-mark programs representative of floating point manipulations. For example, execution times on a CDC 6600 would be less by a factor of roughly 4 than those given in the tcible and on a CDC 7600 less by a factor of roughly 24.  [c.352]

The crude phthalic anhydride is heated and held at 260 C to allow some byproduct reactions to go to completion. Purification is by continuous distillation in two columns. In the first column, maleic anhydride and benzoic and toluic acids are removed overhead. In the second column, pure phthalic anhydride is removed overhead. High boiling residues are removed from the bottom of the second column.  [c.334]

The higher the value of the DCFRR for a project, the more attractive it is. The minimum acceptable value of the DCFRR is the market interest rate. If the DCFRR is lower than market interest rate, it would be better to put money in the bank. For a DCFRR value greater than this, the project will show a profit for a lesser value, it will show a loss.  [c.424]

Made and printed in Great Britain by Richard Clay Ltd, Bungay, Suffolk Set in Monophoto Times  [c.4]

It is readily oxidized by air to benzoic acid. With aqueous KOH gives benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. Gives addition products with hydrogen cyanide and sodium hydrogen sulphite.  [c.54]

Prepared by the action of ammonia on benzoyl chloride or benzoic esters, or by partial hydrolysis of benzonitrile.  [c.55]

It was first described in 1608 when it was sublimed out of gum benzoin. It also occurs in many other natural resins. Benzoic acid is manufactured by the air oxidation of toluene in the liquid phase at 150°C and 4-6 atm. in the presence of a cobalt catalyst by the partial decarboxylation of phthalic anhydride in either the liquid or vapour phase in the presence of water by the hydrolysis of benzotrichloride (from the chlorination of toluene) in the presence of zinc chloride at 100°C.  [c.56]

Much of the benzoic acid produced is converted to sodium benzoate, which is used as a food preservative (as is the acid) and a corrosion inhibi tor. Other important uses of the acid are in the manufacture of alkyd resins, plasticizers, caprolactam, dyestuffs and pharmaceuticals.  [c.56]

It is prepared by fully chlorinating toluene. When heated with water at 100°C, or with lime, benzoic acid is obtained, benzoyl The group PhC(O)-.  [c.57]

Cannizzaro reaction Two molecules of many aldehydes, under the influence of dilute alkalis, will interact, so that one is reduced to the corresponding alcohol, while the other is oxidized to the acid. Benzaldehyde gives benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. Compare the aldol condensation.  [c.78]

This dictionary puts the pleasure back into word-seeking. Every time you look at a page you get a bonus - a panel telling you everything about a particular word or expression. It is, therefore, a dictionary to be read as well as used for its concise and up-to-date definitions.  [c.438]

Lloyd s Bank Tax Guide 1987/8  [c.445]

This data bank is obviously not complete.  [c.87]

The DIPPR is a research organization sponsored by the AlChE (American Institute of Chemical Engineers). Its objective is to develop a thermophysical data bank for the components most frequently encountered in the chemical industry.  [c.88]

Outside of carbon monoxide for which the toxicity is already well-known, five types of organic chemical compounds capable of being emitted by vehicles will be the focus of our particular attention these are benzene, 1-3 butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, PNA, taken as a whole. Among the latter, two, like benzo [a] pyrene, are viewed as carcinogens. Benzene is considered here not as a motor fuel component emitted by evaporation, but because of its presence in exhaust gas (see Figure 5.25).  [c.260]

Aluminum complex greases, obtained by the reaction of aluminum isopropylate with a mixture of benzoic acid and fatty acids. These greases have a remarkable resistance to water, very good adhesion to metallic surfaces, good mechanical stability properties and resistance to temperature. They are less common than the first two types.  [c.281]

With regard to the unconverted residue, the VI after dewaxing is 120 to 135 and the BMCI is between 10 and 15, which makes it an excellent feed for steam cracking units.  [c.392]

This method of running drilling operations has been very successfully applied in recent years and has resulted in considerable cost savings. Various systems are in operation, usually providing a bonus for better than average performance. The contractor agrees with the company the specifications for the well. Then the historic cost of similar wells which have been drilled in the past are established. This allows estimation of the costs expected for the new well. The contractor will be entirely in charge of drilling the well, and cost savings achieved will be split between company and contractor.  [c.62]

Suppose you have to meet an obligation to pay a bill of 10,000 in 5 years time. If you could be guaranteed a compound interest rate in your bank of 7% per annum (after tax) over each of the next 5 years, then the sum which you would have to invest today to be able to meet the obligation in 5 years time would be  [c.319]

If you were offered 7,130 today, or 10,000 in exactly 5 years time, you should be indifferent to the options, unless you could find an alternative investment opportunity which yielded a guaranteed interest rate better than the bank (in which case you should accept the money today and take the alternative investment opportunity).  [c.319]

The closest analogy to a project investment is to consider how much you are required to pay today for the promise of 10,000 in 5 years time. Assuming the only options are the bank or the offer, then the maximum you should be prepared to pay today is 7,130. If you are requested to pay more, then you would do better by putting the 7,130 in the bank.  [c.319]

It is a valuable dyestuffs intermediate. When fused with KOH, two molecules of benz-anthrone combine at the positions marked above to give a dibenzanthrone which is in itself a vat dye. Also used as an intermediate for the preparation of the valuable Caledon Jade Green.  [c.55]

Prepared by the dehydration of benzamide. Hydrolysed by dilute acids and alkalis to benzoic acid. Good solvent. benzopheDone,C]3HioO,PhC(0)Ph. Colourless rhombic prisms, m.p. 49 C, b.p. 306°C. Characteristic smell. It is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride upon benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride (Friedel-Crafts reaction) or by the oxidation of di-phenylmethane. It is much used in perfumery. Forms a kelyl with sodium.  [c.57]

CgHgO, PhCH = CHCOiH. Colourless crystals. Decarboxylales on prolonged heating. Oxidized by nitric acid to benzoic acid. Ordinary cinnamic acid is the trans-isomer, m.p. 135-136 C on irradiation with u.v. light it can be isomerized to the less stable cis-isomer, m.p. 42" C.  [c.100]

Hammen equation A correlation between the structure and reactivity in the side chain derivatives of aromatic compounds. Its derivation follows from many comparisons between rate constants for various reactions and the equilibrium constants for other reactions, or other functions of molecules which can be measured (e g. the i.r. carbonyl group stretching frequency). For example the dissociation constants of a series of para substituted (O2N —, MeO —, Cl —, etc.) benzoic acids correlate with the rate constant k for the alkaline hydrolysis of para substituted benzyl chlorides. If log Kq is plotted against log k, the data fall on a straight line. Similar results are obtained for meta substituted derivatives but not for orthosubstituted derivatives.  [c.199]

Obtained synthetically by one of the following processes fusion of sodium ben-zenesulphonate with NaOH to give sodium phenate hydrolysis of chlorobenzene by dilute NaOH at 400 C and 300atm. to give sodium phenate (Dow process) catalytic vapour-phase reaction of steam and chlorobenzene at 500°C (Raschig process) direct oxidation of cumene (isopropylbenzene) to the hydroperoxide, followed by acid cleavage lo propanone and phenol catalytic liquid-phase oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid and then phenol. Where the phenate is formed, phenol is liberated by acidification.  [c.303]

Chromic or nitric acids cause oxidation to benzoic acid milder oxidation gives ben zaldehyde and benzoic acid. The action of chlorine on boiling toluene gives mainly side chain substitution to benzyl chloride, benzal chloride and benzotrichloride, ail used for the preparation of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Cold chlorination in the presence of iron causes nuclear substitution to a mixture of o-and p chiorotoluenes. Easily nitrated in the cold to mixture of o- and / -nitrotoluenes more vigorous conditions produce ultimately 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is widely used as an explosive (TNT). Sulphonates to a mixture of o- and p-isomers, the latter preponderating the sulphonic acids are used for the preparation of saccharine and chloramine-T respectively. Toluene is used as a constituent of high-octane aviation and motor gasolines, as a solvent and as a raw material in the manufacture of benzene, caprolactam, phenol, many dyestuffs and various other chemicals. U.S. production 1978 4-2 megatonnes.  [c.401]

See pages that mention the term Bhang : [c.191]    [c.18]    [c.36]    [c.54]    [c.55]    [c.56]    [c.56]    [c.57]    [c.57]    [c.57]    [c.60]    [c.97]    [c.120]    [c.176]    [c.180]    [c.199]    [c.199]    [c.200]    [c.204]    [c.315]    [c.406]    [c.456]    [c.476]   
The organic chemistry of drug synthesis Vol.1 (1977) -- [ c.394 ]