Indene, use of CCSD

The present cost of indium is about 1 to 5/g, depending on quantity and purity.  [c.116]

Northeastern Tropical Pacific approximately 5—20° North latitude, 110—155° West longitude (25,26) ia the Central Indian Ocean south of India approximately 5—10° South latitude, 75—88° East longitude (27) ia the EEZ of the Cook Islands ia the South Pacific approximately 15—25° South latitude, 155—165° West longitude (28) and the Blake Plateau off the Adantic coast of the United States approximately 30—35° North latitude, 65—80° West longitude (29).  [c.287]

Nickel on nickel Gold on gold Platinum on platinum Copper on copper Indium on indium Lead on lead Aluminium on aluminium Silver on silver Iron on iron Tin on tin Steel on tin alloy Steel on steel Steel on Pb alloy Steel on Al. bronze Steel on cast iron Steel on brass Steel on bronze Steel on Pb. brass  [c.245]

The poor economics for McAfee s catalytic process lay in the substantial improvements being made in the technology of thermally cracking crude oil. Notable among these competing efforts were those of William Burton of Standard Oil (Indiana), whose high-pressure and high-temperature thermal technology more than doubled the potential yield of gasoline from crude oil and thereby substantially reduced the cost of thermal cracking.  [c.631]

Cast or sintered copper-lead or lead-bronze alloys are widely used for engine bearings. The lead phase in such bearings is readily attacked by weak organic acids and almost all the lead can be leached out unless preventive measures are employed . The lead may be protected by a precision electro-deposited overlay of a lead-tin or lead-indium alloy. About 3% tin or 5% indium in lead will render the lead resistant to attack by oil-oxidation acids . One reason why leaded bearings are protected by an overlay, and not by incorporating the protective alloying elements in the underlying lead, is that both tin and indium dissolve preferentially in copper. In a cast or sintered bearing, therefore, any tin or indium will be found in solution in the copper-rich phase, leaving the lead-rich phase susceptible to attack.  [c.452]

Growth Techniques. The epitaxial layers employed in LEDs are grown on semiconductor substrates that are chosen based on suitable lattice constant, defect density (material quahty), optical transparency, and cost. Most commercial substrates employed in LEDs consist of GaAs gallium phosphide [12063-98-8] GaP or indium phosphide [22398-80-7] InP. These materials are formed by methods of hquid-encapsulated C2ochralski, a crystal growth method similar to that employed in the growth of bulk Si crystals (see Silicon and silicon alloys). Sihcon carbide [409-21-2], SiC, and alumina [1344-28-1], AI2O2, substrates are being utilized to produce the commercially available blue emitters. These LEDs are based on SiC and indium gallium nitride, InGaN, respectively. Most other substrates used in LED fabrication yield inferior cost/performance in comparison.  [c.118]

The carrier mobiHty is usually measured by a time-of-flight method (31—33). The photoconductive film is sandwiched between two transparent electrodes, typically indium tin oxide and gold. The optical density of the film at the laser wavelength has to be high enough that when a low intensity, short-duration laser pulse kradiates the sample, the electron—hole paks are created near the surface of the film. Depending on the polarity of the electric field appHed on the electrodes, either electrons or holes traverse the bulk of the film. This gives rise to a displacement current that is detected by the external ckcuit, as shown in Figure 5a. In the ideal case (ie, in nondispersive transport), the current stays constant and falls off to zero at time when the charge carriers arrive at the other side of the film. Usually the fall-off near T is smeared out due to spreading of the charge carriers packet (Fig. 5a). The carrier mobiHty, ]1, is then determined from the equation = I/(r U), where /is the film thickness and E is the appHed field.  [c.410]

The need for detectors with high performance and low cost has resulted in fewer than two do2en types of detectors which are available as commercial products. These are made from only 10 basic semiconductor elements or compounds. Popular detectors, their modes of operation, cutoff wavelength, temperatures of operation, response times, responsivities, and detectivities are Hsted in Table 1 (15). The values chosen are for near-optimum performance at a given temperature. The development of the siUcon charge-coupled device (CCD) detector has been an important consequence of the microprocessor industry. SiUcon photovoltaic and charge-coupled detectors operate near room temperature. Cadmium sulfide [1306-23-6] and germanium detectors also require no cooling. Wide acceptance of the ternary compound semiconductor mercury—cadrnium—teUuride [29870-72-2] (MCT), HgCdTe, began in 1972 as a photoconductor. Requirements for large focal planes has since led to significant developments of the MCT photodiode focal plane (16). The controllable (by composition) band gap of MCT in each case results in a cutoff wavelength that is tailored for a specific appHcation (see Fig. 4). Lead sulfide, indium arsenide, and MCT (40% at. wt CdTe) detectors can be operated at 300 K but perform much better at lower temperatures (2,14).  [c.424]

Industrial Gases. Industrial gas (oxygen, nitrogen, etc) pipelines are short compared with long-distance pipelines that transport cmde oil, natural gas, or petroleum products however, more than 80% of the oxygen and more than 60% of the nitrogen produced in the United States by air separation is transported by pipeline. Air-separation plants that are built adjacent to the oxygen or nitrogen users faciUties are usually owned and operated by the user or a second party. However, plants located at more distant locations are usually owned and operated by the oxygen producer and the gases transported by pipeline to multiple users in the area, eg, the 150-km, 406-mm dia Houston Ship Channel pipeline system that suppHes oxygen and nitrogen from air-separation plants to chemical plants and oil refineries from Houston to Texas City, Texas (17). Carbon dioxide and hydrogen are also moved by pipeline in the Houston area. Other U.S. industrial gas pipeline systems are located near Gary, Indiana, and along the Mississippi River near the Gulf Coast (18). Multiple users of oxygen (qv), nitrogen (qv), hydrogen (qv), and carbon monoxide (qv) near Rotterdam, the Netherlands, are suppHed by pipeline from a nearby industrial gas complex. Oxygen has been transported for many years by a Erench pipeline connecting Metz with Nancy and extending to Luxembourg and Saarbmcken in Germany.  [c.46]

The smallest unit of a PV system is called the PV ceU. CeUs are manufactured using crystalline and amorphous forms of siHcon, copper indium diselenide [12018-95-0] (CIS), cadmium teUuride [1306-25-8] and gallium arsenide [1303-00-0] as weU as even more exotic materials. Photovoltaic systems generally consist of a flat layer of semiconductor material encapsuled by a glass or plastic cover, or of individual high efficiency PV ceUs incorporated in an optical arrangement to concentrate the sunlight. This latter arrangement often requkes a solar tracking system, whereas the former, flat plate arrangement is normally installed at a fixed angle determined by the latitude of the site. Both types of PV devices are progressing about equally toward reduced cost.  [c.235]

In addition to providing essential nutritional value to support life, the sugar industry has made a profound impact in history and in the social evolution of humankind. Industrial production of sugar (sucrose) is based on sugarcane and sugar beet processing. Sugarcane is grown and processed in tropical and subtropical countries. These regions are inside a belt whose northern border crosses the North American continent at southern California and South Carolina, and the European continent at the southern border of Spain, the Asian continent at northern Arabia, Pakistan, and south China, and the Pacific Ocean at the 37th parallel. In the southern hemisphere, the borderline goes through south Bra2il, crosses the Atiantic Ocean, the African continent at Natal, the Indian Ocean, below the northern coast of AustraUa, and the Pacific Ocean at the 34th parallel. AH regions outside this belt, in the northern and southern hemispheres, depend on sugar beet processing for sugar manufacture.  [c.40]

Production and Economic Aspects. Thallium is obtained commercially as a by-product in the roasting of zinc, copper, and lead ores. The thallium is collected in the flue dust in the form of oxide or sulfate with other by-product metals, eg, cadmium, indium, germanium, selenium, and tellurium. The thallium content of the flue dust is low and further enrichment steps are required. If the thallium compounds present are soluble, ie, as oxides or sulfates, direct leaching with water or dilute acid separates them from the other insoluble metals. Otherwise, the thallium compound is solubilized with oxidizing roasts, by sulfatization, or by treatment with alkaU. The thallium precipitates from these solutions as thaUium(I) chloride [7791 -12-0]. Electrolysis of the thaUium(I) sulfate [7446-18-6] solution affords thallium metal in high purity (5,6). The sulfate solution must be acidified with sulfuric acid to avoid cathodic separation of zinc and anodic deposition of thaUium(III) oxide [1314-32-5]. The metal deposited on the cathode is removed, kneaded into lumps, and dried. It is then compressed into blocks, melted under hydrogen, and cast into sticks.  [c.467]

Valuation of Recycled Heat Energy The rising cost of energy is having an inflationaiy effect on manufacturing costs. One obvious way to reduce energy costs is to recycle heat energy whenever possible [S. A. K. El-Meniawy, F. A. Watson, and F. A. Holland, Indian Chem. Eng., 22 (July-September 1980)].  [c.860]

See pages that mention the term Indene, use of CCSD : [c.132]    [c.5]    [c.432]    [c.75]    [c.179]   
Advances in heterocyclic chemistry Vol.85 (2003) -- [ c.3 , c.81 ]