SPV least-squares approach

In most situations, wastewater discharged from a scouring machine still contains large quantities of grease and water-soluble and insoluble material (both organic and inorganic). The pollution load of one modem scouring machine is equivalent to a population of 30,000 people (59). Disposal or treatment of the wastes to comply with environmental requirements is thus expensive. Probably the least expensive approach to disposal in the past has involved biological treatment by irrigation of large land areas (not less than 20 ha per scouring machine is normally required) or maturation in very large shallow lagoons (49). However, subsequent studies have shown that even this area of land is inadequate for sustainable irrigation onto normal soils cropping one to two pasture crops per year. The high levels of potassium present in scour effluent require 1000 ha of land for sustainable irrigation (64). This recognition has forced scourers to install large evaporation ponds covering many hectares. Technology has been produced to enable scourers to recover much of the potassium from the scour Hquor as potassium concentrate, which can be used as a potassium supplement in fertiliser. This technology is still (ca 1997) undergoing pilot plant trials in AustraUa.  [c.345]

The tendency for any system to grow biological material depends on several factors. Cooling tower design is one. Crossflow towers and counterflow towers without louvers, for example, tend to grow more algae due to the increased amounts of sunlight in contact with the system water. Water quality also comes into play. Make-up water that is reclaimed from a sewage treatment plant, for example, can be rich in nutrients. Also, some food processing operations where beer, tomato paste, milk, sugar, etc. enter the cooling system can have severe corrosion and biological problems. Another potential lies with air quality. Cooling towers located near bakeries, for example, show an increased tendency to grow biological material due to the molds and yeast. Biological concerns run the gamut from nearly zero to very substantial. Whatever the case, an appropriate solution must be developed. The traditional approach is for the operator to alternate between two liquid biocides adding them at a predetermined frequency. Two different formulations are often used to avoid an immunity being developed to just one. Unlike scale and corrosion chemicals that are metered into the system frequently, biocides are typically administered every few days to shock the system. Other chemicals for biological control include chlorine, iodine, bromine and ozone. These are not rotated with other chemicals They are fed by themselves. Ozone is also used to prevent scale. Be certain to specify Viton pump seals when using ozone Standard seals will fail quickly.  [c.87]

The response produced by Eq. (8-26), c t), can be found by inverting the transfer function, and it is also shown in Fig. 8-21 for a set of model parameters, K, T, and 0, fitted to the data. These parameters are calculated using optimization to minimize the squarea difference between the model predictions and the data, i.e., a least squares approach. Let each measured data point be represented by Cj (measured response), tj (time of measured response),j = 1 to n. Then the least squares problem can be formulated as  [c.724]

Scherer et al [205. 206] showed how to prepare, using interferometric methods, pairs of laser pulses with known relative phasing. These pulses were employed in experiments on vapour phase I2, in which wavepacket motion was detected in tenns of fluorescence emission. A more general approach, which can be used in principle to generate pulse sequences of any type, is to transfomi a single input pulse into a shaped output profile, with the intensity and phase of the output under control tln-oughout. The idea being exploited by a number of investigators, notably Warren and Nelson, is to use a programmable dispersive delay line constructed from a pair of diffraction gratings spaced by an active device that is used either to absorb or phase shift selectively the frequency-dispersed wavefront. The approach favoured by Warren and co-workers exploits a Bragg cell driven by a radio-frequency signal obtained from a frequency synthesizer and a computer-controlled arbitrary wavefomi generator [207]. Nelson and co-workers use a computer-controlled liquid-crystal pixel array as a mask [208]. In the fiiture, it is likely that one or both of these approaches will allow execution of currently impossible nonlinear spectroscopies with highly selective infomiation content. One can take inspiration from the complex pulse sequences used in modem multiple-dimension NMR spectroscopy to suppress unwanted interfering resonances and to enliance selectively the resonances from targeted nuclei.  [c.1990]

See pages that mention the term SPV least-squares approach : [c.342]   
Molecular modelling Principles and applications (2001) -- [ c.0 ]