# MacDonald’s theorem

This characteristic is commonly referred to as the bracketing theorem (E. A. Hylleraas and B. Undheim, Z. Phys. 759 (1930) J. K. E. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. 43, 830 (1933)). These are strong attributes of the variational methods, as is the long and rich history of developments of analytical and computational tools for efficiently implementing such methods (see the discussions of the CI and MCSCF methods in MTC and ACP). [c.487]

C. G. MacDonald and J. S. Shannon, Tetrahedron Letters, 1963, 1349 and references cited therein. [c.219]

This proof shows that any approximate wave function will have an energy above or equal to the exact ground-state energy. There is a related theorem, known as MacDonald s Theorem, which states that the nth root of a set of secular equations (e.g. a Cl matrix) is an upper limit to the n — l)th excited exact state, within the given symmetry subclass. In other words, the lowest root obtained by diagonalizing a Cl matrix is an upper limit to the lowest exact wave functions, the 2nd root is an upper limit to the exact energy of the first excited state, the 3rd root is an upper limit to the exact second excited state and so on. [c.408]

See pages that mention the term

**MacDonald’s theorem**:

**[c.63]**

Introduction to computational chemistry (2001) -- [ c.408 ]