A remarkable iron pillar, dating to about A.D. 400, remains standing today in Delhi, India. This solid shaft of wrought iron is about 71/4 m high by 40 cm in diameter. Corrosion to the pillar has been minimal although it has been exposed to the weather since its erection.  [c.57]

Iron is hard, brittle, fairly fusible, and is used to produce other alloys, including steel. Wrought iron contains only a few tenths of a percent of carbon, is tough, malleable, less fusible, and has usually a "fibrous" structure.  [c.58]

Fig. 10. 1000 h stress—rupture curves of wrought cobalt-base (Haynes 188 and L-605) and wrought iron-base superalloys (49). To convert MPa to psi,  [c.124]

The first furnaces specifically made for smelting iron ore were low shaft furnaces low box-like hearths made of stone, open at the top, and having an opening near the bottom for air intake. The Catalan hearth furnace for making wrought iron is described in writings from Central Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries AD. These Catalan furnaces were low stone shaft furnaces having hearth dimensions of ca 60 x 60 x 75 cm. As better blowing devices were invented and the height of the furnaces was increased, it is probable that, when the fires became hot, Hquid high carbon iron, which was not malleable, was produced and could be used to make cast-iron articles.  [c.412]

Shipping. Prime virgin-grade mercury is packaged in wrought iron or steel flasks containing 34.5 kg of the metal. Mercury of greater purity, produced by multiple distillation or other means, may be marketed in flasks but is usually packaged in small glass or plastic containers.  [c.106]

It has been known for many centuries that iron ore, embedded in burning charcoal, can be reduced to metallic iron (1,2). Iron was made by this method as early as 1200 BC. Consisting almost entirely of pure iron, the first iron metal closely resembled modem wrought iron, which is relatively soft, malleable, ductile, and readily hammer-welded when heated to a sufficientiy high temperature. This metal was used for many purposes, including agricultural implements and various tools.  [c.373]

It was not until the eighteenth century that carbon was recognized as a chemical element, and it is quite certain that no early metallurgist was aware of the basis of the unique properties of steel as compared to those of wrought iron. Carbon can be alloyed with iron in a number of ways to make steel, and all methods described herein have been used at various times in many locaUties for perhaps 3000 or more years.  [c.373]

Although 10—30-t nuld-steel or wrought-iron pot stills, equipped with fractionating columns, are stiU in use at one tar works in Spain, continuous stills that have daily capacities of 100—700 t are preferred and used exclusively in the rest of the world.  [c.336]

Wrought iron, highly polished 100-480 0.28 Filament 80-2240 0.036-0.192  [c.574]

Commercial steel or wrought iron 0.0457  [c.636]

Cold water Warm water Wrought iron Air bubbled into water surrounding coil 150-300  [c.1051]

Cold water 25% oleum at 60 C. Wrought iron Agitated 20  [c.1051]

Wrought iron, highly polished 100-480 0.28 Filament 80-2240 0.036-0.192  [c.1061]

Smelting and production of wrought iron  [c.4]

Process for the production of wrought iron  [c.4]

Weldable wrought iron and steel  [c.4]

The best-known English pipe protection material was invented by Angus Smith, and consisted of a mixture of coal tar and linseed oil. Occasionally pipes were laid in sand or pitch-filled wooden ducts to protect them against especially aggressive soils, Bitumenized paper-wrapped pipes for gas lines that could withstand pressures of 20 atmospheres were first shown during the Paris Exhibition in 1867 though they had come into use for water supply shortly before then (Fig. 1 -5). Zinc plating was reported to be an effective protection for wrought-iron pipes in 1864. F. Fischer mentioned cathodic protection for the first time in an exhaustive report. In 1875 there was a report on the use of mineral wool as insulation and of tarred or asphalted  [c.6]

Apparently without knowledge of Davy s experiments, the inspector of telegraphs in Germany, C, Frischen, reported to a meeting of the Architekten-und Ingenieur-Verein at Hanover in 1856 the results of a wider experimental enquiry, over a long period, with particular regard to the protection of the most important and widely used metal, wrought iron, which constitutes the most important parts of the large structures, like bridges, locks, gates, etc. Frischen soldered or screwed pieces of zinc onto iron as a protection against seawater and concluded that an effective protection of iron is doubtless due to the influence of galvanic electricity. However, achieving a successful and practical protective technique would have required many protracted, large-scale experiments [31] and [32J.  [c.12]

Su of cast iron = 0.09 Su of wrought iron = 0.04 Su of brittle materials <0.3 Su of glass = 0.24  [c.156]

Stainless steel, aluminium, wrought iron  [c.266]

Commercial steel or wrought iron 0.00015 0.046  [c.605]

Traditionally, pig-iron was converted to wrought-iron by the puddling process in which the molten iron was manually mixed with haematite and excess carbon and other impurities burnt out. Some wrought-iron was then converted to steel by essentially small-scale and expensive methods, such as the Cementation process (prolonged heating of wrought-iron bars with charcoal) and the crucible process (fusion of wrought-iron with the correct amount of charcoal). In the mid-nineteenth century, production was enormously increased by the introduction of the Bessemer process in which the carbon content of molten pig-iron in a converter was lowered by blasting compressed air through it. The converter was lined with silica or limestone in order to form a molten slag with the basic or acidic impurities present in the pig-iron. Air and appropriate linings were also employed in the Open-hearth process which allowed better control of the steel s composition, but both processes have now been supplanted by the Basic oxygen and Electric arc processes.  [c.1072]

Trevithick s high-pressure steam engines attracted attention, but his mechanical improvements enabling the boiler to withstand ten atmospheres of pressure were even more significant to power plant economy and practicality. He doubled the boiler efficiency. His wrought-iron boiler fired through an internal flue, the Cornish boiler became known worldwide. He applied the high-pressure engine to an iron-rolling mill (180.S), a self-propelled barge using paddle-wheels (1805), a steam dredge (1806) and to powering a threshing machine (1812).  [c.1163]

Steels contain c. 1-5% carbon and other alloying elements, from pig-iron the C content must be reduced, from wrought-iron the C content must be increased. Above 900"C steel is a solid solution of C in y-Fe (austenite). On slow cooling, austenite gives cementite Fe3C and an Fe -C solution below 690"C the y-Fe gives a eutectic of ferrite (c. 0 06% C in a-Fe) and cementite. The eutectic is known as pearl-ite and is soft. Quenching austenite from 900 C to 150" gives martensite (supersaturated C in a-Fe) which is very hard but may be tempered (reduced hardness but still tough) by reheating martensite to 200-300 C.  [c.222]

Processed iron was first produced around 1300 BC. It is presumed that the first iron was made accidentally as a result of very hot fires built on top of some iron-bearing rocks or soil. The iron-bearing rocks could have been reduced to iron by being heated in the presence of hot charcoal and in the absence of air. Upon raking out the ashes, the first ironmaker probably found a sponge-like chunk of hard but malleable metal having considerable slag in its pores. Reduced iron sponge had to be hammered and squee2ed while still hot to expel most of the slag in order to make effective use of the metal. This hammering and working process produced wrought iron.  [c.412]

The production of metallic lead (qv) from galena, PbS, is a simple metallurgical operation, and both this metal and its compounds were used in antiquity. Tin, used mainly in bronze, was probably obtained by mixing the tin ore cassiterite [1317-45-9] Sn02, and copper ore. Some iron (qv) of meteoric origin was found by the ancients, but use of wrought iron was also widespread. Iron was obtained easily by reduction of iron ore by carbon, followed by hammering of the sponge iron, and forging.  [c.162]

No. 1 Heavy Melting Steel. Wrought iron and/or steel scrap >0.6 cm (1/4 ia.) ia thickness is available ia three grades according to size limitations. Although aot usually coasidered a premium grade, it is available ia all primary scrap markets. Because of its wide use over many years. No. 1 heavy melting scrap is commonly used as a bellwether or refereace grade for pricing purposes and various analyses of scrap use, price, and availabiUty.  [c.552]

Salt was produced in prehistoric times from seawater or saline waters by solar evaporation in ponds. This method is stiU in widespread use and probably accounts for more total evaporation than any other process. The first artificially heated evaporators date to Roman times, again for salt, in flat pans over wood fires. Originally the pans were of lead, later of wrought iron, and such pans heated by coal were stiU in use in England in the 1960s (primarily to produce a salt of low bulk density for which there was a substantial export market). Similar open pans, heated by steam cods immersed in the brine, are used for production of salt having special grain characteristics in the United States. Evaporators were introduced by the sugar industry the first steam-heated evaporator about 1800 the first one using vacuum in 1812 the first multiple-effect type in 1843 and the first vapor-compression evaporator about 1880. In the 1990s, the majority of evaporators are steam heated and use multiple-effect or vapor compression as the means of reducing the energy required for evaporation.  [c.471]

Gauge number American (AWG) or Brown Sharpe (B S) (for nonferrous wire and sheet) U.S. steel Wire (Stl WG) or Washburn Moen or Roebling or Am. Steel Wire Co. [a. (steel) WG] (for steel wire) Birmingham (BWG) (for steel wire) or Stubs Iron Wire (for iron or brass wire) U.S. Standard (for sheet and plate metal, wrought iron) Standard Birmingham (BG) (for sheet and hoop metal) Imperial Standard and Wire Gauge (SWG) (British legal standard) Gauge number Gauge number American (AWG) or Brown Sharpe (B S) (for nonferrous wire and sheet) U.S. steel Wire (Stl WG) or Washburn Moen or Roebling or Am. Steel Wire Co. [a. (steel) WG] (for steel wire) Birmingham (BWG) (for steel wire) or Stubs Iron Wire (for iron or brass wire) U.S. Standard (for sheet and plate metal, wrought iron) Standard Birmingham (BG) (for sheet and hoop metal) Imperial Standard and Wire Gauge (SWG) (British legal standard) Gauge number  [c.41]

From Moody, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 66, 671-684 (1944) Mech. Eng., 69, 1005-1006 (1947). Additional values of e for various types or conditions of concrete wrought-iron, welded steel, riveted steel, and corrugated-metal pipes are given in Brater and King, Handbook of Hydraulics, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976, pp. 6-12-6-13. To convert millimeters to feet, multiply hy 3.281 X l0-  [c.636]

The code states further that pipe-supporting elements shall (1) avoid excessive interference with thermal expansion and contrac tion of pipe which is otherwise adequately flexible (2) be such that they do not contribute to leakage at joints or excessive sag in piping requiring drainage (3) be designed to prevent overstress, resonance, or disengagement due to variation of foad with temperature also, so that combined longitudinal stresses in the piping shall not exceed the code allowable limits (4) be such that a complete release of the piping load will be prevented in the event of spring failure or misalignment, weight transfer, or added load due to test during erection (5) be of steel or wrought iron (6) be of alloy steel or protected from temperature when the temperature limit for carbon steel may be exceeded (7) not be cast iron except for roller bases, rollers, anchor bases, etc., under mainly compression loading (8) not be malleable or nodular iron except for pipe clamps, beam clamps, hanger flanges, chps, bases, and swivel rings (9) not be wood except for supports mainly in compression when the pipe temperature is at or below ambient and (10) have threads for screw adjustment which shall conform to ANSI Bl.l.  [c.1002]

With the fall of the Roman Empire, the ancient water supplies petered out. In early medieval times, people were content to conduct local water in wooden pipes to public cisterns. The first wooden pipelines for water were laid at Liibeck about 1293 and in 1365 at Nuremberg. In 1412 the Augsburg master builder Leopold Karg first used wrought-iron pipes in conjunction with wooden pipes to supply water. Because of their propensity to corrosion, they seem to have proved a failure and a few years later they were exchanged for wooden, lead, and cast-iron pipes.  [c.3]

Several studies have been conducted in urban areas to relate air pollution exposure and metal corrosion. In Tulsa, Oklahoma, wrought iron disks were exposed in various locations (2). Using weight change as a measure of air pollution corrosion, the results indicated higher corrosion rates near industrial sectors containing an oil refinery and fertilizer and sulfuric acid manufacturing facilities. Upham (3) conducted a metal corrosion investigation in Chicago. Steel plates were exposed at 20 locations, and SOj concentrations were also measured. Figure 9-1 shows the relationship between weight loss during 3-, 6-, and 12-month exposure periods and the mean SO2 concentration. Corrosion was also found to be higher in downtown locations than in suburban areas. Nonferrous metals are also subject to corrosion, but to a lesser degree than ferrous metals. Table 9-1 compares the weight loss of several nonferrous metals over a 20-year period (4). The results vary depending on the type of exposure present.  [c.127]

Schmiedeeisen, n. wrought iron forging steel, mild steel.  [c.393]

The mechanization of various elements of textile production, especially carding, spinning, and weaving, after 1770 created important new applications for waterpower. As textile factories grew larger, engineers modified the traditional wooden water wheel to enable it to better tap the kinetic energy of falling water. In addition to following Smeaton s example and using weight-driven wheels as much as possible, they replaced wooden buckets, with thinner sheet-iron buckets and used wrought iron tie-rods and cast iron axles to replace the massive wooden timbers used to support traditional water wheels. By 1850 iron industrial water wheels, with efficiencies of between 60 percent and 80 percent, had an average output of perhaps 15-20 lip, three to five times higher than traditional wooden wheels. Moreover, iron industrial wheels developing over 100 hp were not unconinion, and a rare one even exceeded 200 hp. The iron-wood hybrid wheel erected in 1851 for the Burden Iron works near Troy, New York, was 62 feet (18.9 111) in diameter, by 22 feet (6.7 m) wide, and generated around 280 hp.  [c.696]

See pages that mention the term Wrought-iron : [c.222]    [c.412]    [c.574]    [c.1061]    [c.3]    [c.5]    [c.203]    [c.393]    [c.393]    [c.402]    [c.402]    [c.423]    [c.432]    [c.451]    [c.98]   
Chemistry of the elements (1998) -- [ c.1073 ]