Early legislation


At the time of writing photodegradants are in an early stage of development and have not yet been fully evaluated. It is a moot point whether or not manufacturers will put such materials into polymer compounds and thus increase the price about 5% without legal necessity. However, if such legislation, considered socially desirable by many, took place one might expect polyethylene  [c.154]

From those early days a great deal of legislation has been passed, including the Factories Act 1961 (which repealed earlier acts), the Power Presses Regulations 1965, the Offices Shops and Railway Premises (Hoists and Lifts) Regulations 1968 and the Greater London Council (General Powers) Act 1973, which was specifically directed at self-operated laundries. These have now all been embodied within the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974, which, although it does not change existing regulations regarding frequency of inspections, does provide that duties under earlier regulations are now enforced within this Act.  [c.140]

Capacities for producing virtually all biofuels manufactured by biological or thermal conversion of biomass must be dramatically increased to approach their potential contribution to primary energy demand (Table 4). An incremental EJ per year of biogas requires about 200 times the existing digestion capacity, including wastewater treatment plants, whereas an incremental EJ per year of ethanol requires about 13 times the existing fermentation plant capacity. Thus, biofuels cannot be expected to satisfy large EJ markets in the short- to mid-term. Since most nonwaste-derived biofuels are not economically competitive with fossil fuels in the early 1990s, large additions to plant capacity will not occur except in those cases where environmental concerns or legislative incentives are governing factors.  [c.43]

Some of the first electroplating appHcations in the early 1800s involved attempts to coat inexpensive base metals with thin layers of pure gold, or even more cheaply, gold-colored brass. Economic reasons are almost always foremost in the decision of coating selection. Exceptions are where environmental or legislative measures requite more expensive, less toxic coatings, as in replacement of cadmium [7440-67-7]. The use of metallic coatings often conserves rare metals, allowing the more abundant materials to serve as substrates. Bulk corrosion-resistant materials such as stainless steel or Monel use large amounts of scarce nickel and chromium. One metal may serve many different functions, depending on the appHcation. Thus gold [7440-57-5] may be the permanent decorative coating on jewelry, a permanent functional coating on electrical connectors (qv) or anodes, or a temporary functional and protective coating for solder joint connections on printed circuit boards in which the thin gold layer protects the underlying nickel from oxidation then dissolves in the molten solder to allow solder bonding to the nickel (see Solders and brazing filler metals).  [c.129]

Environmentally degradable polymers face many issues and challenges not apparent or recognized in the early years of research. Their development requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving polymer synthesis chemists, analytical chemists, environmental scientists for estabUshing testing protocols for laboratory simulation of disposal environments, and microbiologists for evaluating the environmental fate and effects of the degradable polymers, their degradation products, and any residues left in the environment. In addition to the scientific issues, there are issues related to perceptions among the pubHc in which strong emotions can play a part, and any new polymer developed as an environmentally degradable product will be scnitinized by consumers of the products it goes into and by national and international legislative bodies for confirmation that it is free from real or perceived adverse environmental effects, before global acceptance can become a reaUty. Thus, environmentally degradable polymers and plastics must meet very stringent guidelines for acceptance by a wide-ranging panel of reviewers. The importance of meeting this requirement is reflected in the search for acceptable definitions for environmentally degradable polymers and new, more meaningful laboratory testing protocols for quantitatively measuring degradation and environmental fate and effects, and correlating the results of these experiments with real-world exposures. Consequently, definitions and test methods are addressed eady in this article, prior to describing the important synthetic approaches under evaluation for environmentally degradable plastics and polymers and identifying some current and potential commercial products.  [c.472]

In general, common carriers could not limit their HabiHty for loss or damage except for consideration in the form of a reduced freight rate if the shipper retains the right to select either full or limited HabiHty. Historically, HabiHty limitations generally required the approval of the ICC, which was sparingly given. However, because of the enactment of regulatory reform legislation in the early 1980s, approval is no longer required and shippers and carriers may agree on HabiHty lirnitations. Freight rates appHcable to shipments subject to limited carrier HabiHty are known as released rates.  [c.260]

Smoke Toxicity of Burning Plastics. Smoke, not flames, is the primary cause of death ki most fires. However, past efforts to determine which building product components, eg, wood, fabric, plastic, etc, generate the most harmful or toxic smoke emissions have proven kiconclusive. The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) fists seven factors that contribute to the overall risk/danger of materials combustion toxicity (/) ease of ignition (2) flame spread (J) fire endurance or how rapidly fire penetrates a barrier (4) rate of heat rise (5) ease of fire extinction (6) smoke evolution and (7) toxic-gas generation. NIBS has noted that combustion toxicity is not just a building materials issue but also a building products design issue. At present, several state, eg. New York, and local governments have enacted legislation requiting the testing and fifing of smoke toxicity data for all building constmction products used within thek jurisdiction. However, because these tests, such as the Pittsburgh Test developed at the University of Pittsburgh, measure an arbitrary value of toxicity, typically on mice under short-term laboratory conditions excluding long-term chronic health effects or teratological factors, no effort has been successful at finking these test data to a meaningful set of building code regulations. NIBS is currentiy workiag to develop a nationally recognized standard for measuting combustion toxicity that it will present to ASTM. Fkially, several companies are developkig proprietary wall covetings that trigger ionization-type smoke detectors early ki the thermal cycle of a fire. This pre-alert capability will further enhance the safety of buildings from the risk of fire (84,86,87).  [c.337]

Automotive Catalytic Converter Catalysts. California environmental legislation in the early 1960s stimulated the development of automobile engines with reduced emissions by the mid-1960s, led to enactment of the Federal Clean Air Act of 1970, and resulted in a new industry, the design and manufacture of the automotive catalytic converter (50). Between 1974 and 1989, exhaust hydrocarbons were reduced by 87% and nitrogen oxides by 24%.  [c.198]

Before tlie 1970s, there was little legislation regarding tlie prevention of air and water pollution. Although some of the early laws approached the issue of pollution prc cntion. none of tliis legislation provided for emergency plamiing and response in the event of an accident.  [c.32]

All the early water legislation addressed Ute issue of pollution, but Ute issue of emergency plamting and response was overlooked. The OH Pollution Act of 1961 and the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966 leaned toward prevention and response, but Uic efforts fell short of providing meaningful legislation.  [c.33]

All the early water legislation addressed the issue of pollution, but tlie issue of emergency plaiuiing and response was overlooked.  [c.76]

The safety of refrigeration and air cooling systems had always been an issue due to the toxicity or flammability of most refrigerants. In fact, increasing prevalence of refrigeration caused accidents and deaths, and the bad publicity and restrictive legislation were becoming serious threats to the gi owth of refrigeration and air conditioning. Fortunately, a solution was found when Thomas Midgley, Albert Henne, and Robert McNary invented chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants (CFCs) for Frigidaire. They were introduced in 1930 and, with the realization of their overall importance to health, safety, and the future of refrigeration and air conditioning, CFCs were made available to the entire industry. The CFCs made it possible to engineer air conditioning systems for any application without fear of safety issues. All other refrigerants used for small refrigeration and most air conditioning systems were soon completely displaced. The CFC refrigerants were applied to air conditioning systems in the early 1930s. One early use was in air conditioning for passenger trains. By 1936 all long-distance dining and sleeping cars on U.S. railroads were air conditioned.  [c.26]

Environmental and social benefits could also be jeopardized under restructuring. The elimination of integrated resource planning (IRP) is particularly of concern. Tn an TRP process, energy-efficiency programs and renewable-energy technologies compete with conventional generating plants for the resource investment expenditures of electric and gas utilities. The competition takes into account the environmental consequences of producing electricity from fossil fuels. At IRP s peak in the early 1990s, more than thirty-three states mandated the use of IRP processes. These mandates came from state legislation or from state regulatoi y commission orders.  [c.1005]


See pages that mention the term Early legislation : [c.32]    [c.437]    [c.212]    [c.255]    [c.261]    [c.404]    [c.2209]    [c.1]    [c.31]   
See chapters in:

Health, safety and accident management in the chemical process industries  -> Early legislation


Health, safety and accident management in the chemical process industries (2002) -- [ c.32 ]